THE annual report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the year 1936 (Cmd. 5514. H.M. Stationery Office, 1937. 2s. net), raises several questions with which scientific workers are concerned, whether actually engaged in industries or as citizens interested in the protection of national health from conditions which would degrade it. Anyone reading the report would be disturbed at what is revealed in it as to the very long hours that are being worked in some of the newer industries. While in the nineteenth century, broadly speaking, Great Britain undoubtedly led the world in imposing limitations on hours of work and the observance of minimum standards of safety and health in factories and workshops, in the last few decades it is clear that the country has fallen sadly behind other important industrial countries in these matters.