Letter | Published:

Structure and Resistance of Thin Metal Films

Naturevolume 140pages107108 (1937) | Download Citation



IT was proposed by Kramer1 that a film below a certain 'transition temperature' is mainly amorphous, though containing some regions of normal metal, and that at the transition temperature the film is converted completely into the normal crystalline metal. The transition temperature was given by an empirical formula in terms of atomic volume, conductivity, and the number of free electrons per atom (N) in the normal metal. Structural changes have been shown to occur by different investigators2, and have been discussed by them and others3. It has not always been observed that the structural changes occur at a sharply defined critical temperature, and theories alternative to that of Kramer have been proposed.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Kramer, Ann. Phys., 19, 37 (1934).

  2. 2

    Gen. Zelmanoff and Schalnikoff, Phys. Z. d. Sowjetunion, 4, 825 (1933). Perucca, Z. Phys., 91, 660 (1934). Suhrmann and Barth, Z. Phys., 103, 133 (1936). Cosslett, Proc. Phys. Soc., (2), 49, 121 (1936).

  3. 3

    Tamman, Ann. Phys., 22, 73 (1935). Vand, Z. Phys., 104, 48 (1936).

  4. 4

    Cosslett, Proc. Phys. Soc., (2) 49, 121 (1936).

  5. 5

    Hume-Hothery, “Metallic State”, p. 326 (Oxford, 1931).

  6. 6

    Fukuroi, NATURE, 139, 884 (1937).

  7. 7

    Lovell, Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 157, 311 (1936).

  8. 8

    Appleyard and Lovell, Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 158, 718 (1937).

  9. 9

    Andrade, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A, 235, 69 (1935).

Download references

Author information


  1. Research Laboratories of the General Electric Co., Ltd., Wembley

    • D. A. WRIGHT


  1. Search for D. A. WRIGHT in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date




By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.