South Indian Blood Groups A STUDY of the blood groups of a jungle tribe (Pre-Dravidian), the Paniyans of Wynad, has been made by Mr. A. Aiyappan of the Government Museum, Madras (Man, November). This tribe was selected as being more isolated and in a purer state than most other Pre-Dravidians. No great degree of admixture with them has taken place, owing to the sexual jealousy of the tribal code. Until recently they were very wild. The Australians, Veddahs and Paniyans, notwithstanding close resemblances, are differentiated by several anatomical characters, especially of the face. The Paniyan is infantile and prognathous, whereas the Veddah is orthognathous; and the supraciliary ridges of the Paniyan are less prominent than in either Australian or Veddah. Nothing is known of the blood-typing of the Veddahs, and comparison is therefore restricted to the Australians. Two hundred and fifty Paniyans from three different settlements were tested. The following results were obtained: 0, 20 per cent; A, 62-4 per cent; B9 7-6 per cent; AB, 10 per cent. The Australian figures are: 0, 57 per cent; A, 38-5 per cent; B, 3 per cent; and AB, 1-5 per cent. Thus though there is no close resemblance between the two sets of data, they agree in having a low percentage of B. Von Eickstedt makes an interesting suggestion that the Pre-Dravidians may be regarded as the Palae-Europid type, and this the blood grouping supports. In a correlation table the Paniyans will be placed very near the Lapps and other peoples of western Europe. The Paniyans show a much lower percentage of O than the Australians; but Cleland, typing a sample of central Australians, found 38! per cent 0 and 61.9 per cent A. If further research confirmed this bigger series, we should be able to say that serologically the Australians and Paniyans are closely linked.