RAYMOND CLARENCE JAMES HOWLAND was born in Fulham on June 5, 1896, and was educated at Latymer Upper School, Hammersmith (1907-15). In December 1914 he won an open scholarship at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and went into residence in October 1915. After two terms, an attempt to join the O.T.C. having failed on account of defective eyesight, he nevertheless succeeded in enlisting as a gunner in the R.G.A. in March 1916, went to France and served through the rest of the War, returning to Cambridge at the beginning of the Easter term 1919. Although he obtained a first class in Part I of the Mathematical Tripos and was a wrangler in 1920. the handicap due to the interruption of his studies by the War prevented him from taking Schedule B, and debarred him from opportunities which should normally have been open to one of his mathematical ability. In consequence, he went down from Cambridge after taking his degree in 1920 and spent a year in school-teaching at Berkhamsted.