THE recently issued report of the Research Grant Board, Union of South Africa, covers the period 1918-35. The Board was established in October 1918 as a result of a recommendation of the Advisory Board of Industry and Science, which had been formed earlier that year from an amalgamation of the Industries Advisory Board and “a Scientific and Technical Committee”. It was at first proposed that the Research Grant Board should be attached to the Department of Agriculture, but after forming a subcommittee of the Advisory Board until the dissolution of the latter in 1923, it was attached to the Department of Mines and Industries until 1933, when it was transferred to the newly-formed Department of Commerce and Industries. While attached to one Department, the Board is regarded as serving all branches of Government, recognition being given to this relationship by the presence on the Board of assessor members from other Departments. Initially, the Board's activities were confined to the encouragement of research in universities and museums, but its scope was speedily extended to embrace every branch of knowledge and to include the whole country irrespective of institutions.