A POWERFUL, learned and convincing book which has just appeared will, it is to be hoped, turn the minds of many people, besides readers of NATUBE, to the consideration of the subject raised in the title of this article. The book is the second volume of Prof. Preserved Smith's “History of Modern Culture”,* of which the first volume was noticed in these columns on April 4, 1931 (127, 515). We shall have something further to say about it later on. The subject is the large one, still unrecognised by most thinkers in its true greatness, of the part which science has played, and is playing with increasing vigour as we write, in changing and building up the fabric of society.