VOL. 19 of Nauka Polska (issued simultaneously with vol. 18) contains articles on science in ancient times; problems in writing biographies; current scientific work at Lwow; the position of science in Italy, Greece, Rumania and Lithuania; and a full account of recent activities in England of the British Science Guild, the Association of Scientific Workers and the Parliamentary Science Committee. The volume concludes with a comprehensive international bibliography (20 pages) of “works concerning the psychology and sociology of science” for the years 1928-31. From Prof. T. Marikowski's report on scientific and cultural life in Lwow at the present time it is clear that, in the faculties for pure science and medicine, modern equipment has been installed and everything is being done to encourage research workers and to see that they are not hampered by lack of facilities. Since the establishment of the Polish Republic, Lwow has become an increasingly important scientific centre in south-east Poland. A polytechnic and medical school existed before the War, but all cultural Hfe came to a standstill in 1914 and it was not until 1920 that circumstances were favourable for the re-establishment of a university in this city.