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    Palaeolithic Affinities in Palestine, Miss Dorothy Garrod publishes in Antiquity for June a survey of the results obtained by her cave explorations on Mt. Carmel in Palestine, bringing them into relation with discoveries of palaeolithic age in other parts of Palestine, and offering tentative suggestions for a correlation of Palestinian palaeolithic with that found elsewhere. As only certain points are noted here, it must suffice to say that the Carmel cave series covers from Natufian (Mesolithic) to Tayacian, the recently recognised rough flake industry, dated as to its phase II here represented at the beginning of the Riss-Wiirm interglacial. For details of the sequence and their distribution in the caves, reference must be made to the original paper. The outstanding feature of the Lower Natufian is the artistic skill of the people shown in bone and stone carving. M. Neuville also has found recently a fine specimen in a cave near Bethlehem. Four stages of the Aurignacian were found, of which the Upper is not comparable with European Aurignacian, but probably with Mag-dalenian. The next Aurignacian phase (Wad layer D) resembles closely, not African, as might be expected, but European Middle Aurignacian, hitherto thought to be a local development from Lower Aurignacian, as Europe was then close to Africa. The earliest Aurignacian (Wad layer F) includes a small group of leaf-shaped points which are not known in Europe, but afford a definite link with Africa, where they occur in the Aterian found by Miss Caton-Thompson at the base of the Upper Palaeolithic at Kharga. The Aurignacian fauna indicates a change from wooded to open country, whereas the fauna of the Lower Mousterian (Tabun C) points to warm swampy conditions with heavy rainfall (rhinoceros, hippopotamus, crocodile). Here was found the nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton, dating from the later Riss-Wurm. For the earlier palaeolithic stages not represented in the caves, evidence is afforded by Sir Flinders Petrie's recent Acheulean finds at Gaza, in finds by Neuville, south of Bethlehem, and the Chellean and Acheulean tools found by Breuil and Neuville in Jerusalem. Roughly, Tayacian and Acheulean coincide in date with Europe in the Riss-Wurm, and climatic conditions suggest correlations with pluvial conditions in East Africa.

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    Research Items. Nature 134, 30–32 (1934).

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