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Nature volume 130, pages 446448 (17 September 1932) | Download Citation



LONDON Institute of Metals (Annual Autumn Meeting), Sept. 12–13.—H. J. Gough: Corrosion fatigue of metals (Autumn Lecture). Corrosion fatigue of metals is defined as the behaviour of metals subjected to cyclical stresses while exposed to an environment of an oxidising nature. Following a brief historical account, the nature of the general problem, the nomenclature employed, and the characteristics of laboratory tests are stated; representative failures in service are described. Consideration is then given to the general influences of chemical composition, heat treatment, and cold working on the resistance of metals to corrosion fatigue, also of the effect of time, number of cycles, and corrosivity of environment as factors in the process. Primary importance is attached to the behaviour of protective films under the straining actions associated with cyclical stressing.—W. R. Barclay, G. A. V. Russell, and H. Williamson: Modern works plant and equipment for the hot-working of nickel and nickel alloys. This paper describes a modern plant erected in Great Britain as a result of experience in the hot-working of nickel and its alloys, and a close study of the conditions under which similar work is carried out on the Continent and in America. The main features of the plant are: (1) hydraulic forging press; (2) hot rolling mill. The heating of sheet-bar for rolling into sheets is carried out in a specially designed electric resistance furnace.—G. L. Bailey: Mould materials for non-ferrous strip ingot casting. Grey cast iron is the material most generally used for moulds for the casting of non-ferrous strip ingots. Cast-iron moulds are subject to two particular defects, gas evolution from the face of the mould when this is overheated during pouring (‘blowing’), and transverse cracking of the working faces. Copper is considered the most satisfactory material for strip ingot moulds. Its high thermal conductivity prevents serious temperature gradients and consequent distortion.—E. J. Daniels: Some reactions occurring in ‘hot-dipping’ processes. The part played by fluxes has been investigated and a general agreement found with diverse processes. The contamination of the liquid metal is an inevitable factor in hot-dipping, soldering, etc., and methods for controlling it are indicated.—N. P. Alien: The effect of pressure on the liberation of gases from metals, with special reference to silver and oxygen. The liberation of oxygen from silver during solidification has been studied by means of cooling curves. The gas is evolved when the ‘internal pressure’ of the dissolved gas becomes greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid metal, and by applying a sufficiently large pressure to the liquid metal the formation of blowholes can be prevented. The equilibrium of the silver-oxygen system is discussed and the existence of a eutectic shown.—J. D. Grogan and T. H. Schofield: On the removal of gases from aluminium alloys by mixtures of nitrogen and volatile chlorides. Raw cylinder nitrogen may be employed. The quantity of chloride needed is small. Metal treated in this way possesses excellent mechanical properties.—H. A. Sloman: Researches on beryllium. With the progressive elimination of metallic impurities, the brittle nature of the early metal was not greatly altered. This brittleness was afterwards found to be due to a beryllium/beryllium oxide eutectic surrounding the metal grains. Most of the work has been directed towards the elimination of this oxide. Of all the methods attempted and described here, sublimation in vacua has been the most effective.—R. J. M. Payne and J. L. Haughton: Some attempts at making beryllium-magnesium alloys. A description is given of various methods which were tried for the production of beryllium-magnesium alloys, all of which were unsuccessful.—D. Stockdale: The constitution of the lead-tin alloys. The micrographic method, two thermal methods, and a modified electrical conductivity method have been used in the determination of the solubility of tin in lead, which is shown to be 19.5 per cent by weight, at the temperature of the eutectic. This value is considerably higher than any other previously obtained.—M. Cook and H. J. Miller: The effect of different elements on the annealing and grain-growth characteristics of alpha brass. An examination has been made of the effect of additions of iron, phosphorus, manganese, and aluminium separately, and of aluminium with nickel, and aluminium with silicon, on the annealing characteristics of alpha brass by determining diamond pyramid hardness values and making grain-size measurements on cold-rolled alloys annealed at various temperatures, while the tensile properties on a number of alloys representative of the various series investigated have also been studied.—J. H. Watson: Liquation or ‘inverse segregation’ in the silver-copper alloys. The first formed primaries, whether of silver or of copper, are free to move under the influence of gravity, when the alloy is maintained for sufficient time at temperatures between the liquidus and the solidus. The primaries which have segregated under the influence of gravity are repelled from their position by the application of severe local chilling to their vicinity.

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