Abel EL, Jacobson S, Sherwin BT (1983). In utero alcohol exposure: functional and structural brain damage. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 5: 363–366.
Abidin I, Kohler T, Weiler E, Zoidl G, Eysel UT, Lessmann V et al (2006). Reduced presynaptic efficiency of excitatory synaptic transmission impairs LTP in the visual cortex of BDNF-heterozygous mice. Eur J Neurosci 24: 3519–3531.
Allan AM, Wu H, Paxton LL, Savage DD (1998). Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA1 receptor-gated chloride ion channel in adult rat offspring. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 284: 250–257.
Aicardi G, Argilli E, Cappello S, Santi S, Riccio M, Thoenen H et al (2004). Induction of long-term potentiation and depression is reflected by corresponding changes in secretion of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101: 15788–15792.
Arevalo C, de Miguel R, Hernandez-Tristan R (2001). Cannabinoid effects on anxiety- related behaviors and hypothalamic neurotransmitters. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 70: 123–131.
Barr AM, Hofmann CE, Phillips AG, Weinberg J, Honer WG (2005). Prenatal ethanol exposure in rats decreases levels of complexin proteins in the frontal cortex. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29: 1915–1920.
Bearer CF (2001). L1 cell adhesion molecule signal cascades: targets for ethanol developmental neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 22: 625–633.
Black MD (2005). Therapeutic potential of positive AMPA modulators and their relationship to AMPA receptor subunits. A review of preclinical data. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 179: 154–163.
Bonthius DJ, West JR (1988). Blood alcohol concentration and microcephaly: a dose response study in the neonatal rat. Teratology 37: 223–231.
Breese CR, Leonard SS (1993). Long-term suppression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in rats after in utero ethanol exposure: relationship to somatic growth. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 264: 448–456.
Breese CR, Narayanan U, Birru S, Talukdar S (2000). Effect of fetal alcohol and nicotine exposure on nicotinic receptor expression. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24: 100A.
Carneiro LM, Diogenes JP, Vasconcelos SM, Aragao GF, Noronha EC, Gomes PB (2005). Behavioral and neurochemical effects on rat offspring after prenatal exposure to ethanol. Neurotoxicol Teratol 27: 585–592.
Chudley AE, Conry J, Cook JL, Loock C, Rosales T, LeBlanc N (2005). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. Can Med Assoc J 172(Suppl 5): S1–S21.
Clausing P, Ferguson SA, Holson RR, Allen RR, Paule MG (1995). Prenatal ethanol exposure in rats: long-lasting effects on learning. Neurotoxicol Teratol 5: 545–552.
Clausing P, Mothes HK, Opitz B (2000). Preweaning experience as a modifier of prenatal drug effects in rats and mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol 22: 113–123.
Coper H, Herrman WM (1988). Psychostimulants, analeptics, nootropics: an attempt to differentiate and assess drugs designed for the treatment of impaired brain functions. Pharmacopsychiatry 21: 211–217.
Day N (1997). Cognitive Development of the Ten-Years-Old in the Maternal Health Practices in Child Development Project. Presented at Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Scientific Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 445.
Doremus TL, Varlinskaya EI, Spear LP (2004). Age-related differences in elevated plus maze behavior between adolescent and adult rats. Ann NY Acad Sci 1021: 427–430.
Edelman GM, Chuong CM (1982). Embryonic to adult conversion of neural cell adhesion molecules in normal and staggerer mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 7036–7040.
Escorihuela M, Fernandez-Teruel A, Zapata A, Nunez JF, Tobena A (1993). Flumazenil prevents the anxiolytic effects of diazepam, alprazolam and adinazolam on the early acquisition of two-way active avoidance. Pharmacol Res 28: 53–58.
Escorihuela M, Tobena A, Driscoll P, Fernandez-Teruel A (1995). Effects of training, early handling, and perinatal flumazenil on shuttle box acquisition in Roman low-avoidance rats: toward overcoming a genetic deficit. Neurosci Biobehav 19: 353–367.
Feng MJ, Yan SE, Yan QS (2005). Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tyrosine kinase B in offspring. Brain Res 1042: 125–132.
Ferguson SM, Brodkin JD, Lloyd GK, Menzaghi F (2000). Antidepressant-like effects of the subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, SIB-1508Y, in the learned helplessness rat model of depression. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 152: 295–303.
Fernandez-Teruel A, Escorihuela RM, Boix F, Tobena A (1991). Effects of different handling-stimulation procedures and benzodiazepines on two-way active avoidance acquisition in rats. 24: 273–282.
Ferrer I, Galofre F, Lopez-Tejero D, Llobera M (1988). Morphological recovery of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the adult rat exposed in utero to ethanol. Toxicology 48: 191–197.
Foltyn P, Lucker PW, Schnitker J, Wetzelsberger N (1983). A test model for cerebrally active drugs as demostrated by the example of the new substance aniracetam. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 33: 865–867.
Gabriel KI, Glavas MM, Ellis L, Weinberg J (2005). Postnatal handling does not normalize hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA levels in animals prenatally exposed to ethanol. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 157: 74–82.
Gamzu ER, Hoover TM, Gracon SI, Ninteman MV (1989). Recent developments in 2-Pyrolidine-containing nootropic. Drug Dev Res 18: 177–189.
Ghamari-Langroudi M, Glavinovic MI (1998). Changes of spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells induced by aniracetam. Pflugers Arch—Eur J Physiol 435: 185–192.
Giurgea C (1980). A drug for the mind. Chem Technol 10: 360–365.
Gouliaev AH, Senning A (1994). Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics. Brain Res Dev 19: 180–222.
Hannigan JH, Cortese BM, DiCerbo JA, Radford LD (1993). Scopolamine does not differentially affect Morris maze performance in adult rats exposed prenatally to alcohol. Alcohol 10: 529–535.
Hanse E, Durand GM, Garaschuk O, Konnerth (1997). Activity-dependent wiring of the developing hippocampal neuronal circuit. Semin Cell Dev Biol 8: 35–42.
Heise GA (1984). Behavioral methods for measuring effects of drugs on learning and memory in animals. Med Res Rev 4: 535–558.
Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA (2003). Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 307: 550–558.
Ho YJ, Eichendorff J, Schwarting RK (2002). Individual response profiles of male Wistar rats in animal models for anxiety and depression. Behav Brain Res 136: 1–12.
Hoyme HE, May PA, Kalberg WO, Kodituwakku P, Gossage JP, Trujillo PM et al (2005). A practical clinical approach to diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Clarification of the 1996 Institute of Medicine criteria. Pediatrics 115: 39–47.
Hsia AY, Malenka RC, Nicoll RA (1998). Development of excitatory circuitry in the hippocampus. J Neurophysiol 79: 2013–2024.
Ito I, Tanabe S, Kohda A, Sugiyama H (1990). Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam. J Physiol 424: 533–543.
Irvine LF (2003). Relevance of the developmental toxicity of ethanol in the occupational setting. J Appl Toxicol 23: 289–299.
Isaacson JS, Nicoll RA (1991). Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 10936–10940.
Jin R, Clark S, Weeks AM, Dudman JT, Gouaux E, Partin KM (2005). Mechanism of positive allosteric modulators acting on AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 25: 9027–9036.
Jones KL, Smith DW, Ulleland CN, Streissguth P (1973). Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1: 1267–1271.
Keshavarzian A, Choudhary S, Holmes EW, Yong S, Banan A, Jakate S et al (2001). Preventing gut leakiness by oats supplementation ameliorates alcohol—induced liver damage in rats. Pharmacol Exp Ther 299: 442–448.
Kang H, Welcher AA, Shelton D, Schuman EM (1997). Neurotrophins and time: different roles for TrkB signaling in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Neuron 19: 653–664.
Kim CK, Kalynchuk LE, Kornecook TJ, Mumby DG, Dadgar NA, Pinel JP et al (1997). Object-recognition and spatial learning and memory in rats prenatally exposed to ethanol. Behav Neurosci 111: 985–995.
Knapp RJ, Goldenberg R, Shuck C, Cecil A, Watkins J, Miller C et al (2002). Antidepressant activity of memory-enhancing drugs in the reduction of submissive behavior model. Eur J Pharmacol 440: 27–35.
Kossel AH, Cambridge SB, Wagner U, Bonhoeffer T (2001). A caged Ab reveals an immediate/instructive effect of BDNF during hippocampal synaptic potentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 14702–14707.
Lolova I, Lolov V, Petkov VV, Vaglenova J (1989). Changes in the synapses of rat hippocampus following pre- and postnatal alcohol exposure. Anat Anz 169: 285–294.
Maier SE, West JR (2001). Drinking patterns and alcohol-related birth defects. Alcohol Res Health 25: 168–174.
Maldve RE, Chen X, Zhang TA, Morrisett RA (2004). Ethanol selectively inhibits enhanced vesicular release at excitatory synapses: real-time visualization in intact hippocampal slices. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28: 143–152.
Mameli M, Zamudio PA, Carta M, Valenzuela CF (2005). Developmentally regulated actions of alcohol on hippocampal glutamatergic transmission. J Neurosci 25: 8027–8036.
Martinez SE, Vaglenova J, Sabria J, Martinez CM, Farres J, Pares X (2001). Distribution of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA in the rat central nervous system. Consequences of brain ethanol and retinoid metabolism. Eur J Biochem 268: 5045–5056.
Matthews DB, Simson PE (1998). Prenatal exposure to ethanol disrupts spatial memory: effect of the training-testing delay period. Physiol Behav 64: 63–67.
Minana R, Climent E, Barettino D, Segui JM, Renau-Piqueras J, Guerri C (2000). Alcohol exposure alters the expression pattern of neural cell adhesion molecules during brain development. J Neurochem 75: 954–964.
Morris RG (1989). Synaptic plasticity and learning: selective impairment of learning rats and blockade of long-term potentiation in vivo by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist AP5. J Neurosci 9: 3040–3057.
Morris RG, Anderson E, Lynch GS, Baudry M (1986). Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, AP5. Nature 319: 774–776.
Nakamura K, Kurasawa M (2001). Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol 420: 33–43.
Neese S, La Grange L, Trujillo E, Romero D (2004). The effects of ethanol and silymarin treatment during gestation on spatial working memory. BMC Complement Altern Med 4: 4.
Olney JW (2002). New insights and new issues in developmental neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicology 23: 659–668.
Olney JW (2004). Fetal alcohol syndrome at the cellular level. Addict Biol 9: 137–149.
Olney JW, Wozniak DF, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Ikonomidou C (2001). Glutamate signaling and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 7: 267–275.
O'Malley KD, Nanson J (2002). Clinical implications of a link between Fetal alcohol Spectrum Disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Can J Psychiatry 47: 349–354.
Osborn JA, Kim CK, Steiger J, Weinberg J (1998). Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially alters behavior in males and females on the elevated plus maze. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22: 685–696.
Palanza P, Morley-Fletcher S, Laviola G (2001). Novelty seeking in periadolescent mice: sex differences and influence of intrauterine position. Physiol Behav 72: 255–262.
Partin KM, Fleck MW, Mayer ML (1996). AMPA receptor flip/flop mutants affecting deactivation, desensitization, and modulation by cyclothiazide, aniracetam, and thiocyanate. J Neurosci 16: 6634–6647.
Petkov VD, Konstantinova E, Petkov VV, Vaglenova J (1991). Learning and memory in rats exposed pre- and postnataly to alcohol. An attempt at pharmacolocical control. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 13: 43–50.
Perez HD, Villanueva JE, Salas JM (1991). Behavioral and hippocampal morphological changes induced by ethanol administered to pregnant rats. Ann NY Acad Sci 625: 300–304.
Reisel D, Bannerman DM, Schmitt WB, Deacon RM, Flint J, Borchardt T et al (2002). Spatial memory dissociations in mice lacking GluR1. Nat Neurosci 9: 868–873.
Riley EP, Mattson SN, Li TK, Jacobson SW, Coles CD, Kodituwakku PW et al (2003). Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26: 1863–1871.
Riley EP, Thomas JD, Goodlett CR, Klintsova AY, Greenough WT, Hungund BL et al (2001). Fetal alcohol effects: mechanisms and treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25: 110S–116S.
Rex CS, Lauterborn JC, Lin CY, Kramar EA, Rogers GA, Gall CM et al (2006). Restoration of long-term potentiation in middle-aged hippocampus after induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurophysiol 96: 677–685.
Savic MM, Obradovic DI, Ugresic ND, Cook JM, Sarma PV, Bokonjic DR (2005). Bidirectional effects of benzodiazepine binding site ligands on active avoidance acquisition and retention: differential antagonism by flumazenil and beta-CCt. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 180: 455–465.
Shorvon S (2001). Pirrolidone derivates. Lancet 358: 1885–1892.
Smith DE, Davies DL (1990). Effect of perinatal administration of ethanol on the CA1 pyramidal cell of the hippocampus and Purkinje cell of the cerebellum: an ultrastructural survey. J Neurocytol 19: 708–717.
Snyder J, Nanson J, Snyder RE, Block GW (1997). Stimulant efficacy in children with FAS. In: Strissguth A, Kanter J (eds). The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. University of Washington Press: Seattle. pp 64–77.
Sokol RJ, Delaney-Black V, Nordstrom B (2003). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. JAMA 290: 2996–2999.
Spear LP (2000). The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neurosci Behav Rev 24: 417–463.
Spong CY, Abebe DT, Gozes I, Brenneman DE, Hill JM (2001). Prevention of fetal demise and growth restriction in a mouse model of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. JPET 297: 774.
Suppiramaniam V, Bahr BA, Sinnarajah S, Owens K, Rogers G, Yilma S et al (2001). Member of the Ampakine class of memory enhancers prolongs the single channel open time of reconstituted AMPA receptors. Synapse 40: 154–158.
Tang CM, Shi QY, Katchman A, Lynch G (1991). Modulation of the time course of fast EPSCs and glutamate channel kinetics by aniracetam. Science 254: 288–290.
Thomas JD, La Fiette MH, Quinn VR, Riley EP (2000). Neonatal choline supplementation ameliorates the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on a discrimination learning task in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 22: 703–711.
Trofimov SS, Ostrovskaia RU, Smol'nikova NM, Nemova EP, Voronina TA (1996). The significance of perinatal alcoholization and its withdrawal in the development of late cognitive disorders in rats. Eksp Klin Farmakol 59: 44–46.
Vaglenova J (1992). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in rats and correction with nootropic drugs. PhD Thesis, Sofia, Bulgaria. pp 171.
Vaglenova J, Birru S, Pandiella NM, Breese CR (2004). An assessment of the long-term developmental and behavioral teratogenicity of prenatal nicotine exposure. Behav Brain Res 150: 159–170.
Vaglenova J, Petkov VV (1998). Fetal Alcohol Effects in rats exposed pre- and postnatally to a low dose of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22: 697–703.
Vaglenova J, Petkov VV (2001). Can nootropic drugs be effective against the impact of ethanol teratogenicity on cognitive performance? Eur Neuropsychopharm 11: 33–40.
Voronina TA (1989). Pharmacology of Nootropics (Experimental and clinical studies). Nauka: Moscow, Russia.
Vyklicky Jr L, Patneau DK, Mayer ML (1991). Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by drugs that reduce desensitization at AMPA/kainate receptors. Neuron 7: 971–984.
Wainwright PE (1998). Issues of design and analysis relating to the use of multiparous species in developmental nutritional studies. J Nutr 128: 661–663.
Weeber EJ, Savage DD, Sutherland RJ, Caldwell KK (2001). Fear conditioning-induced alterations of phospholipase C-beta1a protein level and enzyme activity in rat hippocampal formation and medial frontal cortex. Neurobiol Learn Mem 76: 151–182.
Woodward JJ (1999). Ionotropic glutamate receptors as sites of action for ethanol in the brain. Neurochem Int 35: 107–113.
Yonkov D, Georgiev V, Kambourova T (1989). Further evidence for the GABAergic influence on memory. Interaction of GABAergic transmission with angiotensin II on memory processes. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 11: 603–606.
Yoshihara T, Ichitani Y (2004). Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartatereceptor-mediated encoding and retrieval processes in spatial working memory: delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats. Neuroscience 129: 1–10.
Zeng XJ, Tietz EI (1999). Benzodiazepine tolerance at GABAergic synapses on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Synapse 31: 263–277.
Zimatkin SM, Deitrich RA (1995). Aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in the brains of rats and mice genetically selected for different sensitivity to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 19: 1300–1306.
Zimmerberg B, Weston HE (2002). Postnatal stress of early weaning exacerbates behavioral outcome in prenatal alcohol-exposed juvenile rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 73: 45–52.
Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR (1986). Memory impairment in monkeys following lesions limited to the hippocampus. Behav Neurosci 100: 155–160.