UNTIL nearly the close of the nineteenth century, meteorologists—with but a few exceptions—had been content to confine their attention to studying the atmosphere near the ground. When Teisserenc de Bort and W. H. Dines began to study the conditions up to a height of 20 km. or more by means of small balloons carrying light self-recording instruments, it immediately became clear that a knowledge of the free atmosphere is essential to an understanding of the physical processes which we include in the term meteorology. Since, however, observations have shown that while pressure gradients associated with cyclones or anticyclones, after continuing without great change throughout the troposphere in most cases, fall off rapidly within the stratosphere, and become very small at about 20 km., we have come to regard the domain of physical meteorology as being roughly confined to that part of the atmosphere below about 20 km. I wish now to describe some observations that seem to show that there are effects of cyclones and anticyclones which extend up to something like three times that height.
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DOBSON, G. Ozone in the Upper Atmosphere and its Relation to Meteorology. Nature 127, 668–672 (1931). https://doi.org/10.1038/127668a0
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