THE convection of heat to or from the walls of a circular tube conveying fluid in turbulent motion has been studied by a long line of investigators, among whom may be mentioned Joule, Reynolds, Stanton, Nüsselt, Soennecken, Jordan, Stender, Heinrich, and Stückle. From dimensional considerations Rayleigh (NATURE, Mar. 18, 1915, p. 66) deduced a formula which, written in non-dimensional form, is equivalent to .
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PURDAY, H. Convection of Heat in Fluid Flow through Tubes. Nature 119, 527 (1927). https://doi.org/10.1038/119527a0
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