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    CONGRATULATIONS are due to Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G..F.R.S. (elected 1902), who entered on his eightieth year on May 20. He is held in honour as the founder of Nigeria, the first Governor of which, Sir Frederick Lugard, appointed in 1914, was his friend and co-helper. Goldie made acquaintance with the wild Niger districts in 1877, when little more than thirty years of age, but earlier he had acquired a con siderable knowledge of the African continent, -which stood him in good stead when new possibilities loomed on the horizon. To add to the British Empire the tracts of the lower and middle Niger, already more or less penetrated by British traders, became Goldie's creative purpose. The introduction of ordered sway by chartered companies was an early conception, and some united efforts were made. In 1881 he sought to obtain a charter from the Imperial Government, but there were difficulties. In 1884 he succeeded in buy ing out the French traders, and the year 1886 saw the establishment of the Royal Niger Company, with Lord Aberdare as Governor and himself as Vice-Governor. The Germans, led by Prince Bismarck, were markedly antagonistic to all schemes. However, Goldie's efforts to obtain treaties with the numberless chiefs were eminently successful, and ultimately the British sphere was recognised. In 1900 the Company transferred its territories to the British Government, and by 1903 British sovereignty was acknowledged. Sir George was made a privy councillor in 1898. In 1905 he was elected president of the Royal Geographical Society, holding office for three years. He is an Hon. D.C.L. (Oxon.) and LL.D. (Camb.), honours con ferred in 1897.

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