IN a paper contributed to Section E (Geography) of the British Association at Hull, Prof. J. F. Unstead commented on the striking fact that the new states of Europe, or those which have gained or regained independent existence during recent years, lie in a relatively narrow belt of country extending across the whole of Europe from the Arctic Sea in the north to the Mediterranean in the south. West of this belt changes have been slight, while east of it a final settlement has not been reached. Of this belt no part has been exempt from change. It contains about 100 millions of people or about one-fifth of the inhabitants of Europe, and covers about one-fifth of the total area of the continent. The new states have been formed mainly by the break-up of three great empires, the, disintegration of which was one of the results of the world war.