Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Biofeedback treatment of prehypertension: analyses of efficacy, heart rate variability and EEG approximate entropy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560–2572.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Kshirsagar AV, Carpenter M, Bang H, Wyatt SB, Colindres RE . Blood pressure usually considered normal is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 2006; 119: 133–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Linden W, Moseley JV . The efficacy of behavioral treatments for hypertension. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2006; 31: 51–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Nakao M, Yano E, Nomura S, Kuboki T . Blood pressure-lowering effects of biofeedback treatment in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertens Res 2003; 26: 37–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Malliani A, Lombardi F, Pagani M . Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability: a tool to explore neural regulatory mechanisms. Br Heart J 1994; 71: 1–2.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Pincus SM . Approximate entropy as a measure of system complexity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 2297–2301.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Nakao M, Nomura S, Shimosawa T, Fujita T, Kuboki T . Blood pressure biofeedback treatment of white-coat hypertension. J Psychosom Res 2000; 48: 161–169.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Yucha CB, Tsai PS, Calderon KS, Tian L . Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training for essential hypertension: who is most likely to benefit? J Cardiovasc Nurs 2005; 20: 198–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D . Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. Lancet 2001; 358: 1682–1686.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Morise T, Horita M, Kitagawa I, Shinzato R, Hoshiba Y, Masuya H et al. The potent role of increased sympathetic tone in pathogenesis of essential hypertension with neurovascular compression. J Hum Hypertens 2000; 14: 807–811.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Guyton AC, Hall JE . Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th edn. Elsevier Saunders: Philadelphia, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Jeong J . EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Clin Neurophysiol 2004; 115: 1490–1505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was partially supported by grants from the Ministry of Health of China (no. WSBKYJJ2002-1-004), Guangdong Provincial Department of Science & Technology (no. 2002C31209) and the Department of Health of Guangdong Province (no. 4202002).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to T H Wang.

Additional information

Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on the Journal of Human Hypertension website (

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Xu, X., Gao, J., Ling, D. et al. Biofeedback treatment of prehypertension: analyses of efficacy, heart rate variability and EEG approximate entropy. J Hum Hypertens 21, 973–975 (2007).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links