Table 3 Pooled RRs (95% CI) of CHD and results of heterogeneity test

From: Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies

  No. of cohorts No. of participants (events) Fruit and vegetable intake (serving/day)
    <3 3–5 >5
     RR (95% CI) I2, P for heterogeneity RR (95% CI) I2, P for heterogeneity
All studies 13 278 459 (9143) 1 0.93 (0.86–1.00) 58.8%, 0.005 0.83 (0.77–0.89) 37.5%, 0.08
Gender        
 Men 6 95 055 (4792) 1 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 58.3%, 0.04 0.84 (0.78–0.90) 0%, 0.72
 Women 3 125 763 (1402) 1 0.76 (0.55–1.05) 59.1%, 0.09 0.76 (0.64–0.90) 51.1%, 0.13
Duration of follow-up        
 <10 years 5 141 101 (3838) 1 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 73.0%, 0.005 0.85 (0.75–0.95) 35.9%, 0.18
10 years 8 137 358 (5305) 1 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 48.2%, 0.07 0.81 (0.73–0.90) 44.1%, 0.08
Dietary assessment method        
 Food frequency questionnaire 10 272 100 (8498) 1 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 57.4%, 0.01 0.86 (0.81–0.92) 12.4%, 0.33
 Othersa 3 6359 (645) 1 0.78 (0.66–0.92) 0%, 0.91 0.70 (0.56–0.88) 49.8%, 0.14
Dietary instrument administration        
 Self-administered 10 251 778 (6349) 1 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 48.9%, 0.05 0.81 (0.75–0.89) 36.1%, 0.12
 Interview-administered 3 26 681 (2794) 1 0.97 (0.80–1.17) 79.7%, 0.007 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 59.9%, 0.08
Dietary intake b        
 Fruits 9 241 190 (5603) 1 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 29.4%. 0.20 0.87 (0.80–0.95) 20.1%, 0.27
 Vegetables 9 229 937 (6288) 1 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0%, 0.46 0.84 (0.76–0.92) 49.2%, 0.06
  1. Abbreviations: RR, relative risk; CHD, coronary heart disease; CI, confidence interval.
  2. aOne study used dietary history method and two used food records.
  3. bThe equivalent intake for the three categories was <1.3, 1.3 to 2.0 and >2.0 servings/day, respectively for fruits, and <1.7, 1.7 to 3.0 and >3.0 servings/day, respectively for vegetables.