Geological Map of the Caucasus, with Explanatory Notes

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DR. OSWALD'S colour-printed map of the Caucasus is on the scale of 1: 1,000,000, and covers the country from the Sea of Azov to the Caspian. We may regret that the heights are given in English feet; but those who use it will generally have other topographic maps at hand. It is produced in a bold style, somewhat like that of Noë's map of the Alps, and embodies a good deal of personal study by the author. The descriptive pamphlet directs attention to the production of crystalline schists and the intrusion of granite in pre-Carboniferous times. Intense folding took place in the Upper Jurassic epoch, the pressure acting from the south-west; and the latest and still more important folding, this time induced from the north-east, is of Miocene and even post-Sarmatian age. Kazbek and Elburs are enormous volcanic piles, due to the outwelling of lavas along fractures connected with the final earth-movements of Pliocene times. The author's classification of the Miocene strata brings the Sarmatian into the middle of the system, so that almost all the beds regarded as Miocene in western Europe are crowded into one Lower or Vindobonian series. He retains an Oligocene system, mostly marine, which is well marked off from the prevalent flysch type of Eocene strata.

Geological Map of the Caucasus, with Explanatory Notes.

By Dr. F. Oswald. (London: Dulau and Co., Ltd., 1914.) Price 15s. net.

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C., G. Geological Map of the Caucasus, with Explanatory Notes . Nature 93, 632 (1914) doi:10.1038/093632b0

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