THE German Meteorological Society offered a prize for the best essay on the results of the International Kite and Balloon ascents, and the prize was won by Mr. Gold in 1912 by the memoir which is now published by the Meteorological Office. The results mostly refer to ascents which took place prior to December, 1909, but in the case of some stations observations are included up to November, 1911. From an exhaustive consideration of the temperature in the free air and its relation to pressure at sea-level, geographical position, and season, it appears that in Europe August is, in general, the warmest month in the troposphere, and March the coldest, except close to the surface; thus, the temperature lag is greater for the minimum than for the maximum, which, as is pointed out in the memoir, is to be expected, for convection can carry warmth upwards, but not cold. It has become apparent from the study of the upper air that a cyclone is colder than an anticyclone, and this is borne out by Mr. Gold's figures; he finds that a cyclone is colder than an anticyclone up to ten kilometres, that is, up to the level of the stratosphere.
Geophysical Memoirs (Meteorological Office): The International Kite and Balloon Ascents. By Ernest Gold . (1913.) Price 1s. 6d.
The Free Atmosphere in the Region of the British Isles (Third Report). The Calibration of the Balloon Instruments and the Reading of the Traces. By W. H. Dines, F.R.S. (1914.) Price 3d.
A Comparison of the Electrical Conditions of the Atmosphere at Kew and Eskdalemuir. By Gordon Dobson . (1914) Price 8d.
Lag in Marine Barometers on Land and Sea. By Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S. (1914.) Price 4d.