Societies and Academies.

    Abstract

    LONDON. Royal Society, August 23.—F. W. Aston: The influence of the nature of the kathode on the length of the Crookes dark space. (1) The relations between the values of pressure, voltage, current,1 jand the length of the dark space are determined for plane kathodes of many different materials, and found to satisfy the same form of equations as those previously given for aluminium, the constants varying considerably. (2) Roughness of the kathode surface does not appear to affect the discharge, if the dimensions of the irregularities are small compared with the length of the dark space. (3) The length of the dark space is shown, in the cases examined, to be greatest for silver and least for magnesium, the metals following the same order as in the case of the kathode fall. (4) The rate of change of length of the dark space with change of current density at the surface of the kathode seems much the same for all kathodes, (5) Difficulties in the way of arriving at a satisfactory explanation of these and other data connected with the dark space are indicated and shortly discussed.—F. W. Aston: The discharge between concentric cylinders in gases at low pressures. (1) The relations between pressure, voltage, and the length of the Crookes dark space in the discharge between concentric cylinders take much the same form as those ia the discharge between parallel planes. (2) Curvature of the surface of the kathode appears to have no influence upon the rate of alteration of the length of the dark space with change of current density, so long as the latter is measured at the surface of the kathode. (3) Ceteris paribus, the length of the dark space is greater for a convex cylindrical surface than a plane, and for a plane than a concave one.

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