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Temperature of the Upper Air

Nature volume 85, page 323 (05 January 1911) | Download Citation



M. M. RYKACHEF has worked out the results of balloon ascents at Pavlovsk, Kuchino near Moscow, and Nizhni Olchedaief. There were sixty-three flights at Pavlovsk, thirty-two at Kuchino, and twelve at Olchedaief, some of which attained a height of 12 kilometres. With regard to the yearly means, the temperature at Pavlovsk was up to 9 km. lower than at Kuchino, the differences increasing up to 3 to 3.5 km., and then diminishing. At 9 km. they change sign, increasing up to a maximum of about 4° C. between 10.5 and 12 km. The difference of temperature between Pavlovsk and Nizhni Olchedaief is much greater, diminishes up to 10 km., where it changes sign, and attains a maximum of 1° between 11 and 12 km. A marked diminution in the fall of temperature takes place at a lower height in Pavlovsk than in Kuchino, and at Kuchino than at Olchedaief, the heights being 9.5, 9.8, and 10.8 km. respectively. The temperature of the isothermic layers is highest at Pavlovsk and lowest at Kuchino. These variations may be explained by the odifferences of latitude, Pavlovsk being situated at about 60°, Kuchino 56°, and Nizhni Olchedaief 48°, while Pavlovsk is more exposed to the mild influence of a sea climate than the other two places.

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