IT was found by Forbes many years ago that the thermal conductivity of ice was better along the principal axis than at right angles to it. Straneo, in 1897, does not come to any definite conclusion in deciding that such is the case. It is well known, however, that the formation of surface ice by conduction always shows the principal axis of the crystals to be normal to the freezing plane, or, in other words, in the direction of the flux of heat from the underwater. Since ice is a better conductor of heat than water, it is to be expected that if any difference exists in the conductivity in the two directions, the ice crystal would form in such a way as to dissipate the heat more readily.
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BARNES, H. The Orientation of Crystals of Ice in a Flux of Heat. Nature 83, 276 (1910). https://doi.org/10.1038/083276c0
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