The Flow of Sand


ON Friday, February 11, I had the pleasure of hearing Mr. C. E. S. Phillips deliver the discourse at the Royal Institution, illustrated by many experiments, a number of which showed that when sand escapes from an orifice at the bottom of a long vertical tube it does not do so perfectly uniformly, but in a series of pulses which are sufficiently rapid to produce audible sounds. Mr. Phillips did not offer any suggestion as to the reason why the flow is regularly intermittent, but two of his other experiments, and the laws of friction, suggest a possible cause.

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ACKERMANN, A. The Flow of Sand. Nature 82, 487 (1910).

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