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Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages

Abstract

Objective:

To investigate appetite responses over 4 h to fructose beverages in obese men, relative to glucose and whey protein. Second, to investigate the effect of combining whey and fructose on postprandial appetite hormones.

Design:

Randomized, double-blind crossover study of four beverages (1.1 MJ) containing 50 g of whey, fructose, glucose or 25 g whey+25 g fructose. Blood samples and appetite ratings were collected for 4 h then a buffet meal was offered.

Subjects:

Twenty-eight obese men (age: 57.0±1.6 years, body mass index: 32.5±0.6 kg/m2)

Measurements:

Plasma ghrelin (total), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 7–36), cholecystokinin-8, glucose, insulin and appetite ratings were assessed at baseline and 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min after beverages, followed by measurement of ad libitum energy intake.

Results:

Fructose produced lower glycaemia and insulinaemia compared to the glucose treatment (P<0.0001); whereas postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1 and cholecystokinin responses were similar after both treatments. Whey protein produced a prolonged (2–4 h) suppression of ghrelin (P=0.001) and elevation of GLP-1 (P=0.002) and cholecystokinin (P=0.003) that were reduced when combined with fructose, while glucose and insulin responses were similar. Energy intake after 4 h was independent of beverage type (glucose 4.7±0.2 MJ; fructose 4.9±0.3 MJ; whey 4.6±0.3 MJ; whey/fructose 4.8±0.3 MJ; P>0.05).

Conclusion:

In obese men, fructose- and glucose-based beverages had similar effects on appetite and associated regulatory hormones, independent of the differing glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. The contrasting profile of plasma ghrelin, GLP-1 and cholecystokinin after whey protein consumption did not impact on ad libitum intake 4 h later and was attenuated when 50% of whey was replaced with fructose.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Rosemary McArthur, Julia Weaver, Kathryn Bastiaans, Candita Sullivan and Mark Mano for their assistance. We acknowledge the National Centre for Excellence in Functional Foods for partial funding of this study.

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Correspondence to J Bowen.

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Bowen, J., Noakes, M. & Clifton, P. Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages. Int J Obes 31, 1696–1703 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803665

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Keywords

  • fructose
  • protein
  • appetite
  • ghrelin
  • GLP-1

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