Table 3 Clinical and biochemical data during the intervention

From: Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic women

  WLFO (n=35) WLPO (n=32) Control (n=26) WLFO vs WLPO vs control
  Baseline 24 weeks Baseline 24 weeks Baseline 24 weeks Time*Group
AUC insulin (pmol/120 min) 47 333 (29 191) 32 909 (18 858)*** 51 534 (35 657) 36 390 (30 071)*** 46 396 (28 390) 53 460 (26 538)††,‡‡ <0.0001
AUC glucose (mmol/120 min) 932 (212) 835 (126)*** 935 (246) 847 (243)*** 872 (190) 923 (236) 0.008
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.82 (0.74) 5.52 (0.49) 5.71 (0.78) 5.51 (1.09) 5.85 (0.59) 5.71 (0.66)  
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 73.6 (44.2) 56.4 (27.2) 80.7 (42.4) 64.6 (51.3) 74.7 (35.4) 70.8 (33.4)  
HOMA (μU/mmol/l) 2.65 (1.84) 1.92 (0.97) 2.85 (1.91) 2.20 (3.02) 2.70 (1.49) 2.50 (1.42)  
HbA1c (%) 5.55 (0.57) 5.21 (0.36) 5.51 (0.58) 5.12 (0.34) 5.54 (0.61) 5.33 (0.60)  
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.42 (0.79) 0.96 (0.49)*** 1.73 (0.71) 1.36 (0.60)**,†† 1.48 (0.99) 1.42 (0.88)†† 0.02
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.27 (0.21) 1.35 (0.35)** 1.30 (0.33) 1.31 (0.29) 1.38 (0.32) 1.39 (0.36) 0.0014
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.40 (1.09) 3.30 (0.98) 3.29 (0.86) 3.12 (0.81) 3.23 (1.03) 3.26 (1.00)  
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.42 (1.23) 5.17 (1.05) 5.47 (0.91) 5.10 (0.90) 5.40 (1.22) 5.40 (1.19)  
Systolic blood pressure 137.5 (19.8) 122.8 (17.3) 130.1 (22.0) 121.0 (18.1) 134.0 (18.1) 130.3 (20.0)  
Diastolic blood pressure 75.4 (10.2) 69.2 (9.7) 71.9 (9.5) 69.8 (10.3) 72.7 (9.4) 70.9 (10.6)  
Sialic acid (mmol/l) 2.26 (0.34) 2.11 (0.29) 2.34 (0.30) 2.19 (0.31) 2.28 (0.29) 2.26 (0.28)  
CRP (mg/l) 3.77 (8.76) 2.26 (3.21) 4.38 (4.88) 3.04 (3.80) 3.12 (3.28) 2.85 (3.15)  
TNF-α (pg/ml) 1.81 (3.98) 1.84 (3.26) 1.79 (1.73) 1.74 (1.94) 1.53 (1.35) 1.61 (1.23)  
IL6 (pg/ml) 2.80 (4.53) 2.13 (3.72) 2.83 (1.79) 2.08 (1.45) 3.09 (3.85) 2.95 (3.53)  
Leptin 26.7 (14.9) 16.8 (10.3)*** 25.9 (16.8) 13.6 (11.5)*** 29.1 (13.8) 26.0 (14.5)†,‡‡ 0.0007
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 10.52 (5.09) 12.85 (6.30)*** 11.43 (7.59) 11.21 (6.02) 9.18 (6.87) 9.71 (6.75) 0.0012
  1. Data presented as geometric mean (s.d.) for all outcomes, and analysed using random effects models of the change in outcome, adjusted for baseline values. Time*group effects determined for comparisons of the three intervention groups. Where significant time*group effects exist in the comparison of the three intervention groups, * indicates significant differences within the group, vs. baseline. Indicates significant differences vs. the same timepoint in the WLFO group or vs. the same timepoint in the WLPO group. Significance indicated by increasing number of symbols (**P<0.01, ***P<0.0001, ††P<0.01, ‡‡P<0.01, respectively).
  2. Abbreviations: AUC, area under the curve, BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment method; HbA1c, Glycated haemoglobin; IL6, Interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; WLFO, weight-loss programme, with LC n-3 PUFA. WLPO, weight-loss programme with placebo oil.