Table 3 BMI, energy, macronutrient and fibre intake divided by snack categories

From: Snacking frequency in relation to energy intake and food choices in obese men and women compared to a reference population

Obese group Men (n=1891) Women (n=2368)
Number of snacks 0 (n=328) 1 (n=697) 2 (n=525) ≥3 (n=341) P* 0 (n=196) 1 (n=625) 2 (n=807) ≥3 (n=740) P*
BMI (kg/m2) 36.9±4.1 36.9±4.2 37.4±4.4 37.3±4.6 0.031 37.1±4.0 38.3±4.8 38.3±4.5 38.1±4.4 0.314
Energy (kcal) 2839±917 3169±1142 3287±1110 3669±1229 <0.0001 2324±908 2480±940 2669±973 2964±1106 <0.0001,**
E% protein 16.5±2.6 15.8±2.3 15.9±2.3 15.7±2.4 0.0001 16.2±2.4 16.1±2.4 15.8±2.3 15.3±2.2 <0.0001
E% fat 36.3±4.6 36.5±4.9 37.1±4.2 37.3±4.8 0.0003 35.3±5.1 36.0±4.8 36.6±4.6 37.0±4.5 <0.0001
E% carbohydrate 43.1±5.6 44.1±5.6 43.8±5.0 44.1±5.7 0.064 46.0±5.7 46.2±5.7 46.2±5.2 46.5±5.3 0.217
E% mono-dis. 16.7±5.6 17.9±5.7 18.1±5.6 18.3±5.7 0.0007 19.3±5.8 19.9±5.9 19.6±5.5 20.1±5.2 0.138***
E% alcohol 4.2±3.7 3.6±3.0 3.3±3.1 2.9±3.1 <0.0001 2.5±3.6 1.7±2.6 1.4±2.1 1.2±1.8 <0.0001,**,***
Fibre (g/1000 kcal) 7.2±2.1 7.5±2.0 7.3±1.8 7.2±2.1 0.314 9.0±2.6 8.8±2.4 8.7±2.3 8.7±2.2 0.026
  1. *P-value for trend is adjusted for age and physical activity.
  2. **Significant difference in trend between obese and reference group, P-value<0.01.
  3. ***Significant difference in trend between men and and women, P-value<0.05.
  4. Significant at the <0.05 level after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.
Reference group Men (n=505) Women (n=587)
Number of snacks 0 (n=108) 1 (n=207) 2 (n=127) ≥3 (n=63) P* 0 (n=80) 1 (n=219) 2 (n=190) ≥3 (n=98) P*
BMI (kg/m2) 25.8±3.3 25.9±3.6 25.5±3.1 26.0±3.7 0.701 25.3±4.2 24.6±4.3 24.4±3.6 25.1±4.4 0.814
Energy (kcal) 2507±780 2760±891 2834±838 3091±871 <0.0001 2017±663 2185±664 2299±753.3 2329±761 0.002
E% protein 15.3±2.0 15.1±1.9 15.0±1.9 15.3±2.2 0.673 16.1±2.3 15.8±2.1 15.6±2.1 15.4±2.0 0.026
E% fat 35.6±5.2 35.8±4.6 36.2±4.7 36.4±4.6 0.153 33.3±5.0 35.5±4.9 35.3±4.5 35.3±4.3 0.033
E% carbohydrate 44.3±5.7 44.7±5.3 45.3±5.1 45.1±5.1 0.189 47.2±6.3 45.8±5.4 46.4±5.0 46.5±4.8 0.974
E% mono-dis. 17.1±5.1 18.0±5.5 18.6±5.1 18.9±5.3 0.017 20.5±5.8 19.1±5.2 19.6±5.0 19.2±3.9 0.364
E% alcohol 4.6±3.3 4.2±3.3 3.3±3.4 2.9±2.9 <0.0001 3.1±3.0 2.6±2.7 2.4±2.3 2.4±2.5 0.048
Fibre (g/1000 kcal) 8.7±2.2 8.4±2.0 8.5±2.3 7.9±1.9 0.054 10.8±2.4 9.7±2.4 10.0±2.3 9.9±2.3 0.193
  1. *P-value for trend is adjusted for age and physical activity.
  2. **Significant difference in trend between obese and reference group, P-value<0.01.
  3. ***Significant difference in trend between men and and women, P-value<0.05.
  4. Significant at the <0.05 level after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.