BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated an antiobesity effect of dietary Ca; this is largely mediated by Ca suppression of calcitriol levels, resulting in reduced adipocyte intracellular Ca2+ and, consequently, a coordinated increase in lipid utilization and decrease in lipogenesis. Notably, dairy Ca is markedly more effective than other Ca sources.
DESIGN: Obese subjects were placed on balanced deficit (−500 kcal/day) diets and randomized to control (400–500 mg Ca/day; n=16) or yogurt (1100 mg Ca/day; n=18) treatments for 12 weeks. Dietary macronutrients and fiber were held constant at the US average.
MEASUREMENTS: Body weight, body fat and fat distribution (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure and circulating lipids were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention.
RESULTS: Fat loss was markedly increased on the yogurt diet (−4.43±0.47 vs −2.75±0.73 kg in yogurt and control groups; P<0.005) while lean tissue loss was reduced by 31% on the yogurt diet. Trunk fat loss was augmented by 81% on the yogurt vs control diet (P<0.001), and this was reflected in a markedly greater reduction in waist circumference (−3.99±0.48 vs −0.58±1.04 cm, P<0.001). Further, the fraction of fat lost from the trunk was higher on the yogurt diet vs control (P<0.005).
CONCLUSION: Isocaloric substitution of yogurt for other foods significantly augments fat loss and reduces central adiposity during energy restriction.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Similar content being viewed by others
Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, DiRienzo D, Zemel PC . Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 2000; 14: 1132–1138.
Zemel MB . Calcium modulation of hypertension and obesity: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 428S–435S.
Zemel MB . Role of dietary calcium and dairy products in modulating adiposity. Lipids 2003; 38: 139–146.
Zemel MB . Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 907S–912S.
Shi H, DiRienzo D, Zemel MB . Effects of dietary calcium on adipocyte lipid metabolism and body weight regulation in energy-restricted aP2-agouti transgenic mice. FASEB J 2001; 15: 291–293.
Heaney RP . Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight. J Nutr 2003; 133: 268S–270S.
Teegarden D . Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass. J Nutr 2003; 133: 249S–251S.
Zemel B, Nocton AM, Richards J, Milstead A, Gebhardt L, Campbell PJ . Increasing dairy calcium intake reduces adiposity in obese African-American adults (abstract). Circulation 2002; 106 (Suppl 2): II-610.
Zemel MB, Sun X, Geng X . Effects of a calcium-fortified breakfast cereal on adiposity in a transgenic mouse model of obesity (abstract). FASEB J 2001; 15: A598.
Zemel MB, Geng X . Dietary calcium and yogurt accelerate body fat loss secondary to caloric restriction in aP2-agouti transgenic mice (abstract). Obes Res 2001; 9: 146S.
Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P . Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res 2004; 12: 582–590.
Jacqmain M, Doucet E, Despres J-P, Bouchard C, Tremblay A . Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 1448–1452.
Albertson AM, Good CK, Holschuh NM, Eldridge EL . The relationship between dietary calcium intake and body mass index in adult women: data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, 1994–96 (abstract). FASEB J 2003; 17: A289.
Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS . Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults. The CARDIA study. JAMA 2002; 287: 2081–2089.
Loos R, Rankinen T, Leon A, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C . Calcium intake is associated with adiposity in black and white men and white women of the HERITAGE family study. J Nutr 2004; 134: 1772–1778.
Shi H, Norman AW, Okamura WH, Sen A, Zemel MB . 1α-25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits uncoupling protein 2 expression in human adipocytes. FASEB J 2002; 16: 1808–1810.
Boobis LH, Maughan RJ . A simple one-step enzymatic fluorometric method for the determination of glycerol in 20 μL of plasma. Clin Chim Acta 1983; 132: 173–179.
Xue B, Greenberg AG, Kraemer FB, Zemel MB . Mechanism of intracellular calcium inhibition of lipolysis in human adipocytes. FASEB J 2001; 15: 2527–2529.
Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D . Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 19: 754–760.
Lovejoy JC, Champagne CM, Smith SR, deJonge L, Xie H . Ethnic differences in dietary intakes, physical activity, and energy expenditure in middle-aged, premenopausal women: the Healthy Transitions study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 90–95.
Buchowski MS, Semenya J, Johnson AO . Dietary calcium intake in lactose maldigesting intolerant and tolerant African-American women. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21: 47–54.
Tanasescu M, Ferris AM, Himmelgreen DA, Rodriguez, Perez-Escamilla R . Biobehavioral factors are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican children. J Nutr 2000; 130: 1734–1742.
Carruth BR, Skinner JD . The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in moderating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 559–566.
Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P . Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. JADA 2003; 103: 1626–1631.
Melanson EL, Sharp TA, Schneider J, Donahoo WT, Grunwald GK, Hill JO . Relation between calcium intake and fat oxidation in adult humans. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 196–203.
Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S . Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2000; 85: 4635–4638.
Heaney RP, Davies KM, Bargar-Lux MJ . Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21: 152S–155S.
McCarron DA . Calcium and magnesium nutrition in human hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98: 800–805.
Drapeau V, Despres J-P, Bouchard C, Allard L, Fournier G, Leblanc C, Tremblay A . Modifications in food-group consumption are related to long-term body weight changes. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 29–37.
Barr SI . Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr 2003; 133: 245S–248S.
Parikh S, Yanovski JA . Calcium intake and adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 281–287.
Seckl JR, Walker BR . 11 β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1—a tissue-specific amplifier of glucocorticoid action. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 1371–1376.
Rask E, Olsson T, Soderberg S, Andrew R, Livingstone DE, Johnson O, Walker BR . Tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in human obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2001; 86: 1418–1421.
Masuzaki H, Paterson J, Shinyama H, Morton NM, Mullins JJ, Seckl JR, Flier JS . A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Science 2001; 294: 2166–2170.
Masuzaki H, Yamamoto H, Kenyon CJ, Elmquist JK, Morton NM, Paterson JM, Shinyama H, Shart MGF, Fleming S, Mullins JJ, Seckl JR, Flier JS . Transgenic amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue causes high blood pressure in mice. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 83–90.
Kotelevstev Y, Holmes MC, Burchell A, Houston PM, Schmoll D, Jamieson P, Best R, Brown R, Edwards CR, Seckl JR, Mullins JJ . 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mice show attenuated glucocorticoid-inducible responses and resist hyperglycemia in obesity or stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 14924–14929.
Zemel MB, Sobhani T . Intracellular calcium modulation of cortisol production in human adipocytes (abstract). FASEB J 2003; 17: A323.
Morris KL, Miller SL, Zemel MB . Calcitriol regulation of 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11-β-HSD1) and angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1) expression in human adipocytes (abstract). FASEB J 18; 585: 11.
This research was supported by the Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, General Mills Inc.
About this article
Cite this article
Zemel, M., Richards, J., Mathis, S. et al. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes 29, 391–397 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802880
This article is cited by
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports (2021)
International Journal of Obesity (2016)
Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs—A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases
Calcified Tissue International (2016)
Participants in an online weight loss program can improve diet quality during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial
Nutrition Journal (2014)
Comparative effects of whey and casein proteins on satiety in overweight and obese individuals: a randomized controlled trial
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014)