Table 3 Lean body mass, fat mass, bone mass, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity and creatinine clearance prior to and after 12 weeks of energy restriction, 4 weeks of energy balance, and 12 months of follow-up on a conventional protein or high-protein diet

From: Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects

Variable Week 0 Week 16 Week 68 % change P-value
Lean mass (kg)
 SP diet 49.9±2.8 48.3±2.8 50.0±2.8§ 0.2±0.9 0.66
 HP diet 49.8±3.0 49.2±2.7 50.2±2.9§ 0.6±0.7  
Fat mass (kg)
 SP diet 40.6±1.9 33.7±1.8 38.0±2.1§, −7.0±1.5 0.20
 HP diet 41.8±8.1 34.1±7.4 37.6±6.9§, −9.4±2.4  
Bone mass in males (kg)
 SP diet 3.4±1.2 3.5±1.3 3.5±1.4, 2.7±0.9 0.68
 HP diet 3.3±2.3 3.4±2.1 3.4±2.0, 2.4±1.1  
Bone mass in females (kg)
 SP diet 2.9±1.1 2.8±1.1 2.9±1.1 −0.4±0.8 0.60
 HP diet 2.9±0.9 2.9±0.9 2.9±0.9 0.1±0.8  
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 SP diet 131.9±3.1 128.3±3.3 131.3±3.5 −0.3±1.7 0.44
 HP diet 132.1±2.9 127.2±4.4 128.9±3.6 −2.3±1.8  
Diastolic BP in males (mmHg)
 SP diet 79.9±4.1 76.6±3.9 75.2±4.6 −6.1±1.3 0.75
 HP diet 81.7±4.3 81.8±7.1 75.6±3.4 −7.1±3.2  
Diastolic BP in females (mmHg)
 SP diet 73.8±3.2 73.9±2.9 74.1±2.7 1.3±2.9 0.47
 HP diet 72.1±2.3 68.5±2.3 70.9±2.4 −1.4±2.3  
CRP (mg/l)
 SP diet 4.0±0.5 3.4±0.6 3.4±0.6*, −17.7±8.8 0.39
 HP diet 6.7±1.0 5.7±1.0 5.4±1.0* −18.0±9.8  
sICAM-1 (ng/ml)
 SP diet 553.2±27.7 544.0±25.4 378.0±30.7§ −30.8±4.3 0.58
 HP diet 513.0±23.8 508.7±23.0 358.3±17.8§ −27.6±4.6  
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)
 SP diet 5.4±0.2 5.3±0.1 5.5±0.2 2.2±2.6 0.37
 HP diet 5.3±0.1 5.4±0.1 5.6±0.2 6.1±3.1  
Fasting insulin (mU/l)
 SP diet 14.5±1.0 10.8±1.1 11.8±1.1 −16.3±6.3 0.44
 HP diet 17.5±1.5 11.1±1.1 13.0±2.0 −22.0±10.5  
HOMA (insulin sensitivity)
 SP diet 3.5±0.3 2.6±0.3 3.1±0.5* −13.8±7.2 0.50
 HP diet 4.2±0.4 2.7±0.3 3.3±0.6* −19.3±12.0  
Creatinine clearance (ml/min)
 SP diet 101.8±7.1 105.5±8.5 112.6±7.8 15.6±8.4 0.24
 HP diet 100.2±11.8 128.2±13.6 124.2±10.8 31.8±10.3