Table 3 Summary statisticsa for anthropometric and metabolic parameters

From: Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program

     % Change=week 24–week 0
   Almond-LCD LSM (s.e.) Carbohydrate-LCD LSM (s.e.) Week 0
Parameter Week (n=32) (n=33) Almond-LCD Carbohydrate-LCD
Weight (lbs) 0 244.7 (1.8) 244.7 (1.8) −18*** −11
  24 201.7 (2.3) 218.1 (2.2)   
BMI (kg/m2) 0 38.3 (0.3) 38.4 (0.3) −18*** −11
  24 31.6 (0.3) 34.2 (0.3)   
WC (cm) 0 120 (1.0) 120 (1.0) −14* −9
  24 103 (1.3) 108 (1.3)   
FM (lbs) 0 102.6 (2.2) 102.1 (2.2) −30* −20
  24 71.5 (2.5) 82.1 (2.4)   
FFM (lbs) 0 138.0 (1.4) 137.4 (1.4) −8 −4
  24 126.8 (1.6) 132.0 (1.5)   
TBW (lbs) 0 100.1 (1.4) 99.0 1.4) −8* −1
  24 92.2 (1.6) 97.6 (1.6)   
Insulin (μU/ml) 0 46 (5) 47 (5) −54 −32
  24 21 (5) 32 (5)   
Glucose (mg/dl) 0 152 (11) 152 (11) −16 −16
  24 128 (11) 127 (11)   
HOMA-IR 0 20 (4) 17 (4) −66 −35
  24 7 (2) 11 (2)   
Systolic BP (mmHg) 0 143 (3) 140 (3) −11** 0
  24 127 (3) 138 (3)   
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0 77 (2) 78 (2) −8 −8
  24 71 (1) 72 (1)   
Ketone (mmol/l) 0 0.10 (.04) 0.11 (.03) +260** 0
  24 0.36 (.05) 0.11 (.05)   
TC 0 198 (7) 216 (8) −13 −9
  24 173 (8) 197 (8)   
TG 0 180 (17) 193 (17) −29 −27
  24 128 (18) 141 (17)   
LDL-C 0 99 (5) 108 (5) −15 −10
  24 84 (5) 97 (5)   
HDL-C 0 33 (2) 33 (2) −6* +15
  24 31 (2) 38 (2)   
LDL-C: HDL-C 0 3.1 (0.2) 3.5 (0.2) −10 −23
  24 2.8 (0.2) 2.7 (0.2)   
  1. aAll outcome variables were adjusted for their baseline values in the models. P-values are based on mixed models with an autoregressive covariance structure of order one, with all time points (weeks 0, 8, 16 and 24) included in the model.
  2. Indicates statistically significant difference between groups: ***(P<0.0001).**(P<0.02).*(P<0.05).
  3. LCD=low-calorie diet; LSM=least-squares means; and, s.e.=standard error.