Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Two forms of disordered eating in obesity: binge eating and night eating

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Binge eating disorder (BED) and the night eating syndrome (NES) have been linked to obesity. This review summarizes their characteristics, implications of their diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

METHOD: Selective review of the literature on BED and NES.

RESULTS: BED was proposed as a distinctive disorder on the basis of two large multisite studies in the early 1990s. It is associated with more severe and earlier onset of obesity, earlier onset of dieting and greater psychopathology. It shows large placebo responses and reduction of bingeing in patients on waiting-list controls. Traditional weight reduction programs reduce bingeing at least as well as psychological treatments designed for this purpose. NES is a stress-related eating, sleeping and mood disorder that is associated with disordered neuroendocrine function. It follows a characteristic circadian pattern and has responded to an agent that enhances serotonin function.

CONCLUSIONS: BED responds well to weight reduction programs. It is proposed that this diagnosis be used as a marker for psychological problems that deserve treatment in their own right. NES is an eating, sleep, and mood disorder with distinctive behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics. Studies of treatment for NES are in their infancy but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) show promise.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

References

  1. Stunkard AJ . Eating patterns and obesity. Psychiatr Q 1959; 33: 284–294.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Spitzer RL, Devlin M, Walsh BT, Hasin D, Wing R, Marcus M, Stunkard AJ, Wadden T, Yanovski S, Agras S, Mitchell J & Nonas C . Binge eating disorder: a multisite field trial of the diagnostic criteria. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 11: 191–203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Spitzer RL, Yanovski S, Wadden TA, Wing R, Marcus MD, Stunkard AJ, Devlin M, Mitchell J, Hasin D & Horne RL . Binge-eating disorder: its further validation in a multisite study. Int J Eat Disord 1993; 13: 137–150.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Birketvedt G, Florholmen J, Sundsfjord J, Osterud B, Dinges D, Bilker W & Stunkard AJ . Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome. JAMA 1999; 282: 657–663.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC; 2000; 787

  6. Telch CF, Agras WS & Rossiter FM . Binge eating increases with increasing adiposity. Int J Eat Disord 1988; 7: 115–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Marcus MD, Wing RR & Lamporski DM . Binge eating and dietary restraint in obese patients. Addict Behav 1985; 10: 163–168.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Marcus MD, Smith D, Santelli R & Kaye W . Characterization of eating disordered behavior in obese binge eaters. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 12: 249–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Yanovski SZ . Binge eating disorder: current knowledge. Obes Res 1993; 1: 306–324.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Marcus MD, Wing RR & Hopkin J . Obese binge eaters: affect, cognitions and response to behavioral weight control. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56: 433–439.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Marcus MD, Wing RR, Ewing L, Kern E, Gooding W & McDermott, M . Psychiatric disorders among obese binge eaters. Int J Eat Disord 1996; 9: 69–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Yanovski SZ, Nelson JE, Dubbert BK & Spitzer RL . Association of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity in obese subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 1472–1479.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Mitchell JE & Mussell MP . Comorbidity and binge eating disorder. Addict Behav 1995; 20: 725–732.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Antony MM, Johnson WG, Carr-Nangle RE & Abel JL . Psychopathology correlates of binge eating and binge eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry 1994; 35: 386–392.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Specker S, De Zwaan M, Raymond N & Mitchell J . Psychopathology in subgroups of obese women with and without binge eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry 1994; 35: 185–190.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Telch C & Stice E . Psychiatric comorbidity in a non-clinical sample of women with binge eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66: 768–776.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Wadden TA, Foster GD & Letizia KA . One-year behavioral treatment of obesity: comparison of moderate and severe caloric restriction and the effects of weight maintenance therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994; 62: 165–171.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kuehnel RH & Wadden, TA . Binge eating disorder, weight cycling, and psychopathology. Int J Eat Disord 1994; 15: 321–329.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mussell MP, Mitchell JE, de Zwaan M, Crosby RD, Seim HC & Crow SJ . Clinical characteristics associated with binge eating in obese females: a descriptive study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996; 20: 324–331.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Wilson GT, Nonas CA & Rosenblum GD . Assessment of binge eating in obese patients. Int J Eat Disord 1993; 150: 1472–1479.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Wilfley DE, Schwartz MH, Spurrell EB & Fairburn CG . Using the eating disorder examination to identify specific psychopathology of binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2000; 27: 259–269.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Tanofsky MB, Wilfley DE, Spurrell EB, Welch R & Brownell KD . Comparison of men and women with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 21: 49–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fairburn CG & Cooper Z . The eating disorders examination. In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT (eds). Binge eating: nature, assessment and treatment, Guilford Press: New York; 1993; 317–360.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Wilfley DE, Agras WS, Telch CF, Rossiter EM, Schneider JA, Cole, AG, Sifford L & Raeburn SD . Group cognitive-behavioral therapy and group interpersonal psychotherapy for the nonpurging bulimic individual: a controlled comparison. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61: 296–305.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Basdevant A, Puillon M & Lahlon W . Prevalence of binge eating disorder in different populations of French women. Int J Eat Disord 1995; 18: 309–315.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Rossiter EM, Agras WS, Telch CF & Brusch D . The eating patterns of non-purging bulimic subjects. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 11: 111–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Brody ML, Walsh BT & Devlin MJ . Binge eating disorder: reliability and validity of a new diagnostic category. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994; 62: 381–386.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Yanovski SZ & Stunkard AJ . Obesity and eating disorders. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C (eds). Handbook of obesity, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker: New York. In press

  29. Stunkard AJ, Berkowitz R, Wadden T, Tanrikut C, Reiss E & Young, L . Binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996; 20: 1–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Stunkard AJ, Berkowitz R, Tanrikut C, Reiss E & Young L . d-fenfluramine treatment of binge eating disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 1455–1459.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Bruce B & Agras WS . Binge eating in females: a population-based investigation. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 12: 365–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Wadden TA, Sarwer DB, Womble LG, Foster GD, McGuckin BG & Schimmel A . Psychosocial aspects of obesity and obesity surgery. Sur Clin North Amer 2001; 81: 1001–1024.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hsu LKG, Betancourt S & Sullivan SP . Eating disturbances before and after vertical banded gastroplasty: a pilot study. Int J Eat Disord 1996; 19: 23–34.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Adami GF, Meneghelli A & Scopinaro N . Night eating and binge eating disorder in obese patients. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 25: 335–338.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Adami GF, Bandolfo P, Bauer B & Scopinaro N . Binge eating in massively obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Int J Eat Disord 1995; 17: 45–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Smith DE, Marcus MD, Lewis CE, Fitzgibbon M & Schreiner P . Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults. Annals Behav Med 1998; 20: 227–232.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. le Grange D, Telch CF & Agras WS . Eating and general psychopathology in a sample of Caucasian and ethnic minority subjects. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 21: 285–293.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Pike KM, Dohm FA, Striegel-Moore RH, Wilfley DE & Fairburn CG . A comparison of black and white women with binge eating disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 1455–1460.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Fairburn CG, Doll HA, Welch SL, Hay PJ, Davies BA & O'Connor ME . Risk factors for binge eating disorder—a community based, case-control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 425–432.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Lee YH, Abbott DW, Seim H, Crosby RD, Monson N, Burgard M & Mitchell JE . Eating disorders and psychiatric disorders in the first degree relatives of obese probands with binge eating disorder and obese non-binge eating disorder controls. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 26: 322–332.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Herman CP & Polivy J . Restrained eating. In: Stunkard AJ (ed). Obesity, W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia; 1980; 208–225.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Herman CP & Polivy J . From dietary restraint to binge eating: attaching causes to effects. Appetite 1990; 14: 123–125.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Polivy J & Herman CP . Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. Am Psychol 1985; 40: 193–201.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Polivy J, Herman C, Olmsted M & Jazwinski C . Restraint and binge eating. In: Hawkins RC, Frenow WJ, Clement PP (eds). The binge-purge syndrome: diagnosis, treatment and research, Springer: New York; 1984; 104–122.

    Google Scholar 

  45. National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Dieting and the development of eating disorders in overweight and obese adults. Arch Int Med 2000; 160: 2581–2589.

  46. Berkowitz R, Stunkard AJ & Stallings VA . Binge eating disorder in obese adolescent girls. Ann N Y Acad Med 1993; 699: 200–296.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Spurrell EM, Wilfley DE, Tanofsky MB & Brownell KD . Age of onset for binge eating disorder: are there different pathways to binge eating? Int J Eat Disord 1997; 21: 55–65.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Grilo CM & Masheb RM . Onset of dieting vs binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 404–409.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Abbott DW, de Zwaan M, Mussell MP, Raymond NC, Seim HC, Crow SJ, Crosby RD & Mitchell JE . Onset of binge eating and dieting in overweight women: implications for etiology, associated features and treatment. J Psychosom Res 1998; 44: 367–374.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Mussell MP, Mitchell JE, Fenna CJ, Crosby RD, Miller JP & Hoberman HM . A comparison of onset of binge eating vs dieting in the development of bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 12: 353–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Brewerton TD, Dansky BS, Kilpatrick DG & O'Neil PM . Which comes first in the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa: dieting or bingeing? Int J Eat Disord 2000; 28: 259–264.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Stunkard AJ & Messick S . The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res 1985; 29: 71–83.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Yanovski SZ & Sebring NG . Recorded food intake of obese women with binge eating disorder before and after weight loss. Int J Eat Disord 1994; 15: 135–150.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Charnock DJK . A comment on the role of dietary restraint in the development of bulimia nervosa. Br J Clin Psychol 1989; 28: 329–340.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Gorman BS & Allison DB . Measures of restrained eating. In: Allison DB (ed).. History of assessment methods for eating behavior and weight related problems, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA; 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Telch CF, Agras WS, Rossiter FM, Wilfley DE & Kenardy J . Group cognitive behavioral treatment for non-purging bulimics: an initial evaluation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1990; 58: 629–635.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Kalarchian MA, Wilson GT, Brolin RE & Bradely L . Binge eating in bariatric surgery patients. Int J Eat Disord 1998; 23: 89–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Wilfley DE & Cohen LR . Psychological treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull 1997; 33: 437–454.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Smith DE, Marcus MD & Kaye W . Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obese binge eaters. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 12: 57–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Agras WS, Telch CF, Arnow B, Eldredge K & Marnell M . One-year follow-up of cognitive behavioral therapy for obese individuals with binge eating disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65: 343–347.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Marcus MD, Wing RR & Fairburn CG . Cognitive behavioral treatment of binge eating vs behavioral weight control on the treatment of binge eating disorder. Ann Behav Med 1995; 17: S090

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Nauta H, Hospers H, Kok G & Jansen A . A comparison between a cognitive and a behavioral treatment for obese binge eaters and obese non-binge-eaters. Behavior Therapy 2000; 31: 441–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Fairburn CG . Overcoming binge eating, Guilford Press: New York; 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Carter JC & Fairburn CG . Cognitive behavioral self-help for binge eating disorder: a controlled effectiveness study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66: 616–623.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Peterson CB, Mitchell JE, Engbloom S, Nugent S, Mussell MP & Miller JP . Group cognitive-behavioral treatment of binge eating disorder: a comparison of therapist-led vs self-help formats. Int J Eat Disord 1998; 24: 125–136.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Devlin MJ, Goldfein JA, Carino JS & Wolk SL . Open treatment of overweight binge eaters with phentermine and fluoxetine as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral therapy. Int J Eat Disord 2000; 28: 325–332.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Ricca V, Mannucci E, Mezzani B, Moretti S, DiBernardo M, Bertelli M, Rotella CM & Faravelli C . Fluoxetine and Fluvoxamine combined with individual cognitive-behavioral therapy in binge eating disorder: a one-year follow-up study. Psychother Psychosom 2001; 70: 298–306.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Alger SA, Schwalberg MD, Bigaoutte JM, Michalek AV & Howard IJ . Effect of a tricyclic antidepressant and opiate antagonist on binge-eating behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 865–871.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. McCann UD & Agras WS . Successful treatment of nonpurging bulimia nervosa with desipramine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 1509–1513.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Hudson JI, McElroy SL, Raymond NC, Crow S, Keck PE, Carter WP, Mitchell JE, Strakowski SM, Pope HG, Coleman BS & Jeffrey, JM . Fluvoxamine in the treatment of binge eating disorder: a multicenter placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 1756–1762.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. McElroy SL, Casuto L, Nelson E, Lake KA, Soutullo C, Keck P & Hudson JI . Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of binge eating disorder. A randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 1004–1006.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Agras WS . Pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: longer term outcomes. Psychopharmac Bull 1997; 33: 433–436.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Agras WS, Telch CF, Arnow B, Eldredge K, Wilfley DE, Raeburn, ED, Henderson J & Marnell, M . Weight loss, cognitive, behavioral and desipramine treatments in binge eating disorder: an additive design. Behavior Therapy 1994; 25: 225–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Telch CF & Agras WS . The effects of a very low calorie diet on binge eating. Behavior Therapy 1993; 24: 177–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. LaPorte DJ . Treatment response in obese binge eaters: preliminary results using a very low calorie diet (VLCD) and behavior therapy. Addict Behav 1992; 17: 247–257.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Wadden TA, Foster GD & Letizia KA . Response of obese binge eaters to treatment by behavior therapy combined with very low calorie diet. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992; 60: 808–811.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Ho KSI, Nichaman MZ, Taylor WC, Lec ES & Foreyt JP . Binge eating disorder, retention and drop-out rate in an adult obesity program. Int J Eat Disord 1995; 18: 291–294.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Gladis MM, Wadden TA, Vogt R, Foster G, Kuehnel RH & Bartlett SJ . Behavioral treatment of obese binge eaters: do they need different care? J Psychocom Res 1998; 44: 375–384.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Cachelin FM, Striegel-Moore RH, Elder KA, Pike KM, Wilfley DE & Fairburn CG . Natural course of a community sample of women with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 25: 45–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Fairburn CG, Cooper, Z, Doll HA, Norman PA & O'Connor ME . The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 659–665.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Alger SA, Malone M, Cerulli J, Fein S & Howard L . Beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on weight loss, depressive symptoms, and eating patterns in obese binge eaters and non-binge eaters. Obes Res 1999; 7: 469–476.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Stunkard AJ, Grace WJ & Wolff HG . The night-eating syndrome: a pattern of food intake among certain obese patients. Am J Med 1955; 19: 78–86.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. O'Reardon JP, Stunkard AJ, Allison KC & Ringel B . A clinical trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline in the treatment of the night eating syndrome. Int J Eat Disord 2002; submitted.

  84. Rand CSW, Macgregor MD & Stunkard AJ . The night eating syndrome in the general population and among post-operative obesity surgery patients. Int J Eat Disord 1997; 22: 65–69.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Gluck ME, Geliebter A & Satov T . Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obes Res 2001; 9: 264–267.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Napolitano MA, Head S, Babyak MA & Blumenthal JA . Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome: psychological and behavioral characteristics. Int J Eat Disord 2001; 30: 193–203.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Powers PS, Perez A, Boyd F & Rosemurgy A . Eating pathology before and after bariatric surgery: a prospective study. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 25: 293–300.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Berry EM, Growdon, JH, Wurtman, JJ, Caballero B & Wurtman RJ . A balanced carbohydrate: protein diet in the management of Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1991; 41: 1295–1297.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Yokogoshi H & Wurtman RJ . Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: effects of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations. Metab Clin Exp 1986; 35: 637–642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Hajak G, Rodenbeck A, Staedt J, Bandelow B, Huether G & Ruther, E . Nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in patients suffering from chronic primary insomnia. J Pineal Res 1995; 19: 116–122.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Kennedy SH, Garfinkel PE, Parienti V, Costa D & Braun GM . Changes in melatonin levels but not cortisol levels are associated with depression in patients with depression and eating disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46: 73–78.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Birketvedt G, Sundsfjord J & Florholmen JR . Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the night eating syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282: E366–E369.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Prolo P, Mastorakos G, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A & Chrousos GP . Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 3787–3794.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Chrousos GP & Gold PW . The concepts of stress and stress system disorders: Overview of physical and behavioral homeostatsis. JAMA 1992; 267: 1244–1252.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Aronoff NJ, Geliebter A & Zammit G . Gender and body mass index as related to the night eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Dietet Assn 2001; 101: 102–104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Allison KC, O'Reardon J, Stunkard AJ & Dinges D . Characterizing the night eating syndrome. Obes Res 2001; 9 (Suppl 3): 93S

    Google Scholar 

  97. Manni R, Ratti MT & Tartara A . Nocturnal eating: prevalence and features in 120 insomniac referrals. Sleep 1997; 20: 734–738.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Spaggiari MC, Granella F, Parrino L, Marchesi C, Melli I & Terzano, MG . Nocturnal eating syndrome in adults. Sleep 1994; 17: 339–344.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Thorpy MJ . The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: diagnostic and coding manual, American Sleep Disorders Association, Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee. Allen Press: Lawrence, KS; 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Schenk CH & Mahowald MW . Review of nocturnal sleep-related eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 1994; 16: 343–356.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Grilo CM & Shiffman S . Longitudinal investigation of the abstinence violation effect in binge eaters. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994; 62: 611–619.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Stunkard A, Berkowitz R, Wadden T, Tanrikut C, Reiss E & Young L . Binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996; 20: 1–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. Cerú-Björk C, Andersson I & Rössner S . Night eating and nocturnal eating—two different or similar syndromes among obese patients? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 365–372.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Winkelman JW . Clinical and polysomnographic features of sleep-related eating disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 14–19.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Gupta MA . Sleep-related eating in bulimia nervosa: an underreported parasomnia disorder. Sleep Research 1991; 20: 182

    Google Scholar 

  106. Aronoff NJ, Geliebter A, Hashim SA & Zammit GK . The relationship between daytime and nighttime food intake in an obese night-eater. Obes Res 1994; 2: 145–151.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Williamson DA, Lawson OD, Bennett SM & Hinz L . Behavioral treatment of night bingeing and rumination in an adult case of bulimia nervosa. J Behav Ther & Exp Psychiat 1989; 20: 73–77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Oswald I & Adam K . Rhythmic raiding of refrigerator related to rapid eye movement sleep. Br Med J 1986; 292: 589

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Supported by NIDDK grant RO1 DK56735-0 and by a grant from Pfizer Pharmaceuticals.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Albert J Stunkard.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Stunkard, A., Costello Allison, K. Two forms of disordered eating in obesity: binge eating and night eating. Int J Obes 27, 1–12 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802186

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802186

Keywords

  • binge eating disorder
  • night eating syndrome
  • obesity
  • eating disorders
  • stress disorders
  • sleep disorders

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links