Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The effect of wine or beer versus a carbonated soft drink, served at a meal, on ad libitum energy intake

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverage drinking may increase total energy intake at a meal by various mechanisms and this effect may depend on the sort of beverage.

OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of wine, beer and a soft drink served with a normal meal on food and total energy intake in non-obese men.

DESIGN: A supper meal consisting of three consecutive dishes was presented to 22 young men. Ad libitum energy intakes (EI) of the meal were measured at three different occasions in a cross-over design with red wine, lager beer or a carbonated soft drink. This was done in two studies with different design. In the first study the beverages were supplied ad libitum and in a second study the intake of the beverages was fixed: beer and soft drink at 9 ml/kg body weight and wine isoalcoholic to beer, 3.185 ml/kg body weight.

RESULTS: In the ad libitum beverage study total EI was higher with wine than with the soft drink and beer (P<0.05). In the fixed beverage study differences in total EI did not reach statistical significance (P=0.14), although the intake of goulash was higher with wine and beer than with the soft drink (P<0.005).

CONCLUSION: These data indicate that alcoholic beverages, and wine in particular, may enhance total EI at a meal relative to a soft drink, when served with no restriction.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2

References

  1. Brewers and Licensed Retailers Association Statistical Handbook 1995 Brewing Publications Ltd

  2. Hellerstedt WL, Jeffery RW, Murray DM . The association between alcohol intake and adiposity in the general population Am J Epidemiol 1990 132: 594–611.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Männistö S, Uusitalo K, Roos E, Fogelholm M, Pietinen P . Alcohol beverage drinking, diet and body mass index in a cross-sectional survey Eur J Clin Nutr 1997 51: 326–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Yeomans MR, Hails NJ, Nesic JS . Alcohol and the appetizer effect Behav Pharmac 1999 10: 151.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Yeomans MR, Phillips MF . Failure to reduce short-term appetite following alcohol is independent of beliefs about the presence of alcohol Nutr Neurosci 2002 5: 131–139.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Verwegen CRT . The appetizing effect of an apéritif in overweight and normal-weight humans Am J Clin Nutr 1999 69: 205–212.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Poppitt SD, Eckhardt JW, McGonagle J, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM . Short-term effects of alcohol consumption on appetite and energy intake Physiol Behav 1996 60: 1063–1070.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hetherington MM, Cameron F, Wallis DJ, Pirie LM . Stimulation of appetite by alcohol Physiol Behav 2001 74: 283–289.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. DiMeglio DP, Mattes RD . Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 24: 794–800.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Sandström B, Aro A, Becker W, Lyhne N, Pedersen JI, Pórsdóttir I (eds). Energi In Nordiska näringsstofrekommendationer vol 28: Nord 1996 pp 47–66.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mattes RD . Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids Physiol Behav 1996 59: 179–187.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Tremblay A, St-Pierre S . The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density Am J Clin Nutr 1996 63: 479–482.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Foltin RW, Kelly TH, Fischman MW . Ethanol as an energy source in humans: comparison with dextrose-containing beverages Appetite 1993 20: 95–110.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. de Castro JM, Orozco S . Moderate alcohol intake and spontaneous eating patters of humans: evidence of unregulated supplementation Am J Clin Nutr 1990 52: 246–253.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cordain L, Bryan ED, Melby CL, Smith MJ . Influence of moderate daily wine consumption on body weight regulation and metabolism in healthy free-living males J Am Col Nutr 1997 16: 134–139.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our kitchen staff, dieticians and Charlotte Jakobsen for their invaluable contributions. We are grateful for Cristina Cuthbertsons for linguistic corrections. This work was supported by: The Danish Brewers Association, The Toubro Foundation and The Grethe Pedersen Foundation.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B Buemann.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Buemann, B., Toubro, S. & Astrup, A. The effect of wine or beer versus a carbonated soft drink, served at a meal, on ad libitum energy intake. Int J Obes 26, 1367–1372 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802069

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802069

Keywords

  • alcohol
  • appetite
  • beer
  • compensation
  • energy intake
  • food intake
  • wine

Further reading

Search

Quick links