Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans

Abstract

Objective: Assessment of the effects of 2 weeks of daily administration of HCA on energy intake and satiety in overweight men and women.

Design: A 6-week randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded cross-over trial. Subjects consumed three times daily for 2 weeks 100 ml tomato juice (placebo) and, separated by a 2 week wash-out period, 100 ml tomato juice with 300 mg HCA.

Subjects: Twelve males and 12 females (body mass index 27.5±2.0 kg/m2; age 37±10 y).

Measurements: After 2 weeks, 24 h energy intake (EI), appetite profile, hedonics, mood and possible change in dietary restraint were assessed in the laboratory restaurant. Prevention of degradation and bio-availability was documented.

Results: Twenty-four-hour EI was decreased by 15–30% (P<0.05) with HCA treatment compared to placebo, without changes in the appetite profile, dietary restraint, mood, taste perception and hedonics, while body weight tended to decrease (P=0.1).

Conclusion: HCA treatment reduced 24 h EI in humans while satiety was sustained.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. National Institutes of Health Consensus Developments Panel on the Health Implications of Obesity. Health Implications of obesity Ann Intern Med 1985 103: 1073–1077.

  2. Pasman WJ, Rössner S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM . Body weight changes after treatment of obesity or pregnancy In: westerterp-Plantenga MS, Steffens A, Tremblay A (eds) Regulation of food intake and energy expenditure EDRA, Medical Publishing and New Media: Milan 1999 pp 269–284.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Kempen KP, Saris WHM . Determinants of weight maintenance in women after diet-induced weight reduction Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998 22: 1–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Pasman WJ, Saris WHM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS . Predictors of weight maintenance Obes Res 1999 7: 43–50.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal M, Campbell SM, Johnson CL . Increased prevalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Nutrition examination surveys, 1960–1991 JAMA 1994 272: 205–211.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Watson JA, Fang M, Lowenstein JM . Tricaballylate and hydroxycitrate: substrate and inhibitor of ATP: citrate oxaloacetate lyase Arch Biochem Biophys 1969 135: 209–217.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Sullivan AC, Hamilton JG, Miller ON, Wheatley VR . Inhibition of lipogenesis in rat liver by (−)-hydroxycitrate Arch Biochem Biophys 1972 150: 183–190.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Szutowicz A, Stepien M, Lysiak W, Angielski S . Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on the activities of ATP citrate lyase and the enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in rat brain Acta Biochim Pol 1976 23: 227–234.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Hellerstein MK, Xie Y . The indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis and reduction of food intake by metabolic inhibitors Life Sci 1993 53: 1833–1845.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Campfield LA, Saris WHM . Appetite and blood glucose profiles in humans after glycogen-depleting exercise J Appl Physiol 1999 87: 947–954.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mattes RD, Bormann L . Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables Physiol Behav 2000 71: 87–94.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, Pietrobelli A, Greenfield D, Nunez C . Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potent antiobesity agent JAMA 1998 280: 1596–1600.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kovacs EMR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM . The effect of ingestion of (−)-hydroxycitrate and (−)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on appetite, energy expenditure and body weight Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001 25: 1087–1094.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Stunkard AJ, Messick S . The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger J Psychosom Res 1985 29: 71–83.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Rolland V, Wilson SAJ, Westerterp KR . Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 53: 495–502.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W . Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after food restriction in male rats Physiol Behav 2001 74: 191–196.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Loon L, van Rooijen JJM, van Niesen B, Verhagen H, Saris WHM, Wagenmakers AJM . Effects of (−)-hydroxycitrate supplementation on substrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in humans Am J Clin Nutr 2000 72: 1445–1450.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Stichting Nederlands Voedingsstoffenbestand. Nevo Tabel Voorlichtingsbureau voor de voeding: Den Haag 1996.

  19. Greenwood MRC, Cleary MP, Gruen R, Blasé D, Stern JS, Triscari J, Sullivan AC . Effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat Am J Physiol 1981 240: E72–78.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Kovacs EMR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS . Does (–)-hydroxycitrate reduce de novo lipogenesis? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001 25: S127.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by Novartis Consumer Health Ltd (Nyon, Switzerland) and by Novartis Pharma (Basel, Switzerland, and Summit, NJ, USA).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to MS Westerterp-Plantenga.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Westerterp-Plantenga, M., Kovacs, E. The effect of (−)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans. Int J Obes 26, 870–872 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801979

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801979

Keywords

  • obesity
  • Garcinia cambogia (−)-hydroxycitrate
  • satiety
  • energy intake regulation
  • humans

Further reading

Search

Quick links