Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Effect of obesity and major weight reduction on gastric emptying

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An enhanced gastric emptying rate might reduce the satiating effect of food and thereby promote obesity. Gastric emptying rate has previously been compared between obese and lean subjects with conflicting outcome.

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of gastric emptying rate in lean and obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction.

DESIGN: The study was designed as a case–control study comparing obese and lean subjects and a subsequent comparison of obese subjects before and after a dietary induced major weight reduction.

METHOD: Gastric emptying rate following a solid test meal was estimated scintigraphically for 3 h using the left anterior oblique projection.

SUBJECTS: Nineteen non-diabetic obese (mean BMI=38.7 kg/m2) and 12 lean (mean BMI=23.1 kg/m2) males matched for age and height. All obese subjects were re-examined after a mean weight loss of 18.8 kg (95% CI, 14.4–23.2) achieved by 16 weeks of dietary intervention followed by 8 weeks of weight stability.

RESULTS: When comparing obese and lean subjects no differences were seen in overall 3 h emptying rate (30.3% per hour vs 30.5% per hour). However, a trend towards a higher percentage gastric emptying during the initial 30 min was seen in the obese when compared to lean subjects (24.0% vs 17.8% of the test meal; P=0.08). Weight loss was associated with a reduction in percentage gastric emptying during the initial 30 min (from 24.0% to 18.3% of the test-meal; P<0.02), whereas the overall 3 h emptying rate was unaffected (30.3% vs 30.9% per hour). Neither initial or overall emptying rate differed between reduced-obese and lean subjects.

CONCLUSION: Overall 3 h gastric emptying rate was similar in obese and normal weight males, and unaffected by a major weight loss. However, percentage gastric emptying during the initial 30 min for a solid meal appeared to be increased in obese males and was normalized after a major weight reduction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

References

  1. World Health Organisation . Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. 1997 Report of WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, 3–5 June 1997 WHO: Geneva.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Astrup A . The American paradox: the role of energy-dense fat-reduced food in the increasing prevalence of obesity Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998 1: 573–577.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Bouchard C . Can obesity be prevented? Nutr Rev 1996 54: S125–130.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Astrup A, Buemann B, Western P, Toubro S, Raben A, Christensen NJ . 1994) Obesity as an adaptation to a high fat diet: evidence from a cross-sectional study Am J Clin Nutr 1994 59: 350–355.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Read N, French S, Cunningham K . The role of the gut in regulation food intake in man Nutr Rev 1994 52: 1–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Geliebter A, Westereich S, Gage D . Gastric distention by balloon and test-meal intake in obese and lean subjects Am J Clin Nutr 1988 48: 592–594.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Carbonnel F, Lémann M, Rambaud JC, Mundler O, Raymond J . Effect of the energy density of a solid–liquid meal on gastric emptying and satiety Am J Clin Nutr 1994 60: 307–311.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Schwartz JG, McMahan A, Green GM, Phillips WT . Gastric emptying in Mexican Americans compared to non-hispanic white Dig Dis Sci 1995 40: 624–630.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Näslund E, Grybäck P, Backman L, Jacobsson H, Holst JJ, Therodorsson E, Hellström PM . Distal small bowel hormones: correlation with fasting antrodupdenal motility and gastric emptying Dig Dis Sci 1998 43: 945–952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Tosetti C, Corinaldesi R, Stanghellini V, Pasquali R, Corbelli C, Zoccoli G, Di Febo G . Monetti N, Barbara L. Gastric emptying of solids in morbid obesity Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996 20: 200–205.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Wright RA, Krinsky S, Fleeman C, Trujillo J, Teague E . Gastric emptying and obesity Gastroenterology 1983 84:: 747–751.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Peracchi M, Carola F, Cavagnini F, Benti R, Bareggi B, Baccalaro G, Basilisco G . Plasma somatostatin-like immuno-reactivity and somatostatin-28 levels in obese men J Endocrinol Invest 1998 21: 20–23.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Hutson WR, Ward A . Obesity and weight reduction do not influence gastric emptying and antral motility Am J Gastroenterol 1993 88: 1405–1409.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. French SJ, Murray B, Rumsey RDE, Sepple CP, Read NW . Preliminary studies on the gastrointestinal responses to fatty meals in obese people Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993 17: 295–300.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Zahorska-Markiewitcz B, Jonderko K, Lelek A, Skrzypek D . Gastric emptying in obesity Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985 40C: 309–313.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Maddox A, Horowitz M, Wishart J, Collins P . Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity Scand J Gastroenterol 1989 24: 593–598.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Horowitz M, Collins PJ, Cook DJ, Harding PE, Shearman DJC . Abnormalities of gastric emptying in obese patients Int J Obes 1983 7: 415–421.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Horowitz M, Collins PJ, Shearman DJC . Effect of increasing the caloric/osmotic content of the liquid component of a mixed solid and liquid meal on gastric emptying in obese subjects Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1986 40C: 51–56.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Heitmann BL, Lissner L . Dietary underreporting by obese individuals-is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 1995 311: 986–989.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Tucker LA, Kano MJ . Dietary fat and body fat: a multivariate study of 205 adult females Am J Clin Nutr 1992 56:: 616–622.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Flatt JP . McCollum Award Lecture, 1995: Diet, lifestyle, and weight maintenance Am J Clin Nutr 1995 62: 820–836.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Anderson L, Rösner S . Meal patterns in obese and normal weight men: the ‘Gustaf’ study Eur J Clin Nutr 1996 50: 639–646.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Prentice AM, Black AE, Coward WA, Davies HL, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Ashford J, Sawyer M, Whitehead RG . Higher levels of energy expenditure in obese women BMJ 1986 292: 983–987.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Cunningham K, Daly J, Horowitz M, Read NW . Gastrointestinal adaptation to diets of differing fat compostion in human volunteers Gut 32: 1991 483–486.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Andrews JM, Doran S, Hebbard GS, Rassias G, Sun WM, Horowitz M . Effect of glucose supplementation in appetite and the phyloric motor response to intraduodenal glucose and lipid Am J Physiol 1998 274: G645–652.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Klausen B, Toubro S, Astrup A . Age and sex effects on energy expenditure Am J Clin Nutr 1997 65: 895–907.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Heitmann BL . Evaluation of body fat estimated from body mass index, skinfolds and impedance. A comparative study Eur J Clin Nutr 1990 44: 831–837.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Fahey FH, Ziessman HA, Collen MJ, Eggli DF . Left anterior oblique projection and peak-to-scatter ratio for attenuation compensation of gastric emptying studies J Nucl Med 1989 30: 233–239.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Teff KL, Alavi A, Chen J, Pourdehnad, Townsend RR . Muscarinic blockade inhibits gastric emptying of mixed-nutrient meal: effects of weight and gender Am J Physiol 1999 276: R707–714.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Cunningham K, Horowitz M, Read NW . The effect of short term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying in humans Br J Nutr 1991 65: 15–19.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Miller G, Plamer KR, Smith B, Ferreington C, Merrick MV . Smoking delays gastric emptying of solids Gut 1989 30:: 50–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Hanson M, Lilja B . Gastric emptying in smokers Scand J Gastroenterol 1987 22: 1102–1104.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Nowak A, Jonderko K, Kaczor R, Nowak S, Skrzypek D . Cigarette smoking delays gastric emptying of a radiolabelled solid food healthy smokers Scand J Gastroenterol 1987 22: 54–58.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Knight L, Parkman HP, Brown KL, Miller MA, Trate DM, Maurer AH, Fisher RS . Delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral contractility in normal premenopausal women compares with men Am J Gastroenterol 1997 92: 968–975.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Hermansson G, Sivertsson R . Gender-related differences in gastric emptying rate of solid meals Dig Dis Sci 1996 41: 1994–1998.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Datz FL, Christian PE, Moore J . Gender-related differences in gastric emptying J Nucl Med 1987 28: 1204–1207.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Kao CH, Lai TL, Wang SJ, Chen GH, Yen SH . Influence of age on gastric emptying in healthy chinese Clin Nucl Med 1994 19: 401–404.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Wisén O, Johansson C . Gastrointestinal function in obesity: motility, secretion, and absorption following a liquid test meal Metabolism 1992 41: 390–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Mojaverian P, Vlasses PH, Kellner PE, Rocci ML . Effects of gender, posture, and age on gastric residence time of an indigestible solid: pharmacological considerations Pharm Res 1988 5: 639–644.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Ranganath LR, Beety JM, Morgan LM, Wright JW, Howland R, Marks V . Attenuated GLP-1 secretion in obesity: cause or consequence? Gut 1996 38: 916–919.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Holst JJ, Schwartz TW, Lovgreen NA, Pedersen O, Beck-Nielsen H . Diurnal profile of pancreatic polypeptide, pancreatic glucagon, gut glucagon and insulin in human morbid obesity Int J Obes 1983 7: 529–538.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Collins PJ, Houghton LA, Read NW, Horowitz M, Chatterton BE, Heddle R, Dent J . Role of the proximal and distal stomach in mixed solid and liquid meal emptying Gut 1991 32: 615–619.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Roland J, Dobbeleir A, Vandevivere J, Ham HR . Effect of mild stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects Nucl Med Commun 1990 11: 319–326.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Corvilain B, Abramowicz M, Féry F, Schoutens A, Verlinden M, Balasse E, Horowitz M . Effect of short-term starvation on gastric emptying in humans: relationship to oral glucose tolerance Am J Physiol 1995 269: G512–517.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Geliebter A, Schachter S, Lohmann-Walter C, Feldman H, Hashim SA . Reduced stomach capacity in obese subjects after dieting Am J Clin Nutr 1996 63: 170–173.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. French SJ, Murray B, Rumsey RED, Fadzlin R, Read NW . Adaptation to high-fat diets: effects on eating behaviour and plasma cholecystokinin Br J Nutr 1995 73: 179–189.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Chapman IM, Goble EA, Wittert GA, Horowitz M . Effects of small-intestinal fat and carbohydrate infusion on appetite and food intake in obese and non-obese men Am J Clin Nutr 1999 69: 6–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Lieverse RJ, Jansen JBMJ, Masclee AAM, Lamers CBHW . Satiety effect of a physiological dose of cholecystokinin in humans Gut 1995 37: 476–479.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Inge Timmermann, Jannie M Larsen, Kirsten B Rasmussen, Bente Knap, Lars Paaske, Ulla Pedersen, Anette Vedelspang and Charlotte Kostecki for expert technical assistance at Research Department of Human Nutrition. We also whish to thank Ingelise Siegumfeldt and laboratory staff at the Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital. Finally we wish to thank Wasa Brød A/S (Skovlunde, Denmark) for kindly donating the full supply of the low calorie formula diet Gerlinéa®. This study was supported by the Danish Medical Research Council.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C Verdich.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Verdich, C., Lysgård Madsen, J., Toubro, S. et al. Effect of obesity and major weight reduction on gastric emptying. Int J Obes 24, 899–905 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801250

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801250

Keywords

  • gastric emptying rate
  • human
  • male
  • obesity
  • weight loss
  • dietary intervention

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links