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Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24 h in a respiration chamber.

SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27±3 y; body mass index, BMI 23±3 kg/m2).

DIETS: A high protein and carbohydrate (HP/C) (60:10:30; percentage energy (E%)carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively) and high fat (HF) (30:60:10 respectively) diet, both isoenergetic, isovolumetric, composed of normal food items and matched for organoleptic properties (taste, smell, appearance).

DESIGN: Subjects spent two 36 h periods each in a respiration chamber consuming both test diets in random order. Components of 24 h energy expenditure (24 h EE): sleeping metabolic rate, DIT and activity induced energy expenditure were measured.

RESULTS: DIT was higher in all subjects while on the HP/C diet (1295 kJ/d vs 931 kJ/d; 14.6% vs 10.5% of energy intake; P<0.02). There was no significant difference in other components or total 24 h EE, although there was a trend towards higher EE on the HP/C diet.

CONCLUSION: A high protein and carbohydrate diet induces a greater thermic response in healthy individuals when compared to a high fat diet.

Author information

Correspondence to KR Westerterp.

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Keywords

  • energy metabolism
  • physical activity
  • macronutrients
  • carbohydrate
  • protein
  • fat

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