The Kangra Earthquake of April 4, 1905


    AFTER a lapse of only eight years since the great earthquake of 1897, India suffered another calamity of the same nature on April 4, 1905, less in violence and extent, but more calamitous in its results, for it claimed a death-roll of 20,000 souls. An interesting preliminary account of this earthquake, by Mr. C. S. Middlemiss, appears in the concluding part of vol. xxxii. of the Records of the Geological Survey of India, where the total area over which the shock was felt is estimated at about 1,625,000 square miles, as against 1,750,000 in 1897. The area over which the shock was destructive is smaller in proportion than these figures would suggest, for the isoseist corresponding to io degrees of the Rossi-Forel scale includes only 200 square miles, and that corresponding to 8 degrees of the same scale 2150 square miles, as against 300 and 145,000 in 1897. In comparing these figures an allowance must be made for the personal equation, and it seems that, if Mr. Middlemiss's standard had been adopted in 1897, the former of these figures would have been considerably increased and the latter somewhat reduced.

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