On the Chemical Classification of the Stars1

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    IN the attempts made to classify the stars by means of their spectra, from Rutherford's time to quite recently, the various criteria selected were necessarily for the most part of unknown origin; with the exception of hydrogen, calcium, iron, and carbon, in the main chemical origins could not be assigned with certainty to the spectral lines. Hence the various groups defined by the behaviour of unknown lines were referred to by numbers, and as the views of those employed in the work of classifying differed widely as to the sequence of the phenomena observed, the numerical sequences vary very considerably so that any coordination becomes difficult and confusing.

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    On the Chemical Classification of the Stars1. Nature 60, 52–54 (1899) doi:10.1038/060052f0

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