Wiedemann's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, No. 2.—On kathode rays in gases at atmospheric pressure and in extreme vacua, by Philipp Lenard. This paper gives a detailed account of the behaviour of kathode rays when allowed to penetrate through a metallic screen in the walls of the vacuum tube into the air or other gas outside. It is shown that their behaviour is of a distinctive character, and largely independent of the electric forces producing them. Photographic plates were successfully employed in studying the distribution and divergence of the rays in air and other gases.—Concerning the theory of magnetic and electric phenomena, by Hermann Ebert. This is an attempt to show that by a consistent application of the cyclical theory of electric and magnetic phenomena, as illustrated by Fitzgerald's ether model, a complete and simplified explanation of these phenomena may be obtained.—On the laws of galvanic polarisation and electrolysis, by O. Wiedeburg. This is a detailed investigation of polarisation phenomena from the point of view of a theory which assumes that only a fractional portion of the ions clustering round the electrodes give rise to an opposing electromotive force. The author shows that this assumption leads to a complete and consistent representation of observed facts.—Some forms of immersed electrodes for measurements of electrolytic resistance, by F. Kohlrausch. The electrodes, which consist of small platinum plates about I sq. cm. in area, are soldered to platinum wires which are mounted in a double capillary tube. They are also surrounded by a glass vessel with a hole at the bottom for letting in the liquid. In measuring resistances they need only be immersed, no further adjustments or precautions being necessary.—Some experiments concerning the so-called waterfall electricity, by K. Wesendonck. The author quotes a large number of experiments elucidating the generation of electricity by the impact of water-spray, vapour, and air upon water and metallic conductors. Vapour impinging upon a water surface charges the latter positively, this being analogous to waterfall electricity, and independent of friction.—A new actinometer, by O. Chwolson. This consists of two thermometers placed close together, and is based upon the method of observing the changes in the difference of temperature of the two instruments, the warmer being in the shade, and the colder being exposed to the rays of the sun.
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