IN NATURE, vol. xxiv. p. 364, I see a notice of a paper by Dr. Woeikoff on the glacial climate, in which it is shown that “the difference of mean temperature at the lower ends of glaciers (in different parts of the world) reaches fully 20°.” This might be expected. The extent of glaciation depends not at all on mean or on winter temperature, but chiefly on summer temperature. Perpetual snow means summer snow, so that summer temperature is what determines the extent of the snow-fields remaining unmelted in the summer, and consequently of the glaciers which are fed by the snow-fields. The extent of glaciation is also much influenced by the amount of snow-fall. All this is stated in Forbes's “Norway and its Glaciers.”

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MURPHY, J. Glaciation. Nature 24, 460 (1881).

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