Geographical Notes


    AT the meeting of the Geographical Society on Monday evening, after a few remarks from the Earl of Dufferin, who occupied the presidential chair for the first time, Mr. C. R. Markham, C.B., read three papers on Arctic matters. In the first he treated of the Swedish expedition, of the progress and results of which we have kept our readers informed. The second paper was devoted to the Dutch expedition in the Willem Barents during the past season, the results of which are by no means insignificant. Experience of the ice movements between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya was acquired, and a full hourly series of meteorological observations taken, as well as deep-sea soundings with serial temperatures and magnetic observations. Natural history collections were also made, and Mr. W. G. A. Grant, who was in the Pandora in 1876, succeeded, in spite of almost constant fogs, in completing an excellent series of photographs. Lastly, Mr. Markham dealt with the best route for future Polar discovery, which he considers to be along the west coast of Franz Josef Land.

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