Geological Society', June 24. John Evans, F,R.S., president, in the chair. Tlse following communications were read New Carboniferous Polyzoa, by Prof. John Young, and Mr.John Young, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow University (see NATURE, vol. ix., p. 456) On Pekzeesryoe and other polyzoal appendages, by Prof. John Young and Mr. John Young, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow University. The steppes of Siberia, by Thomas Belt. The author de,eribed the portion of the Siberian steppes traversed by him as consisting of sand and loam. The best section seen by him was at Pavlodar, where he found i ft. of surface-soil, 20 ft. of stratified reddish.brosvn sand, with lines of small gravel, 8 ft. of light-coloured sandy silt, e5 ft. of coarse sand, with lines of small pebbles and one line of large ones, and 6ff. of clayey unlaminated silt, with fragments of the bed-rock in its lower half; the bed-rock being magnesian limestone much crushed at the top. The geuerally accepted marine origin of the great plain was said to be negatived by the absence of sea shells in its deposits, whilst Cyrzeefiumisse//z occurs in them. The author regards them as deposits from a great expanse of fresh water kept back by a barrier of polar ice descending far towards the south. In its greatest extension this iceS barrier would produce the crushing of the hed-roek; and as it retreated, the water coming down from the higher ground in the south would cover a continually increasing surface. On the microscopic structure and composition of British Carboniferous dolerites, by S. Allpurt. Additional remarks on boulders, with a pariicular reference to a group of very large and far-travelled erraties in Llanarmon parish, Denbighshire, by D. Mackintosh Note on the Bingera diamond-fields, by Archibald Liversidge. Remarks on the working of the molar teeth of the Dsjtrolerlsss, by Gerard Krefft, F.L.S.; communicated by the president. In this paper the author criticised a figure of the lower molars of Dsjssreleden, published by Prof. Owen, on the ground that the teeth are represented in it in an unabraded state, and stated that when the last tooth breaks through the gum the first of tbe series isalways worn flat. He also remarleed on the peculiar modification of the premolar in the genus Dzfrelee'en. Descriptions of species of Chw/stea from the lower Sslurian rocks of North America, by Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, F.R.S.E. In this paper the author accepted the union of Char/s/na and Stenspore made by Mime Edwards and Haime, and stated that Mesr/iesilijtere D'Orb. and Nel'elijtsre McCoy, also seemed to him to belong to the same generic group, for which he proposed to employ the name Char/n/es. On the composition and structure of the bony palate of Ctenenfnz, byL. C. Miall; communicated byProf. P. Martin Duncan, F. R. S, Notes on a railwaysection of the Lower Lias and Rhmties between Stratford-on-Avon and Fenny Compton, and on the occurrence of the Rhsetics near Kineton and the Insect-beds near Knowle in Warwiekshire, and en the recent discovery of the Rhwtics near Leieester, by the Rev. P. B. Brodie. --The resemblasices of iehthyosanrian hoofs to the bones of other animals, by Harry Govier Seeley, F. L. S. In this paper the aothor eodeavoured to give precision to the term ichthyosaurian by aoalysing the characters of the Ichthyosaurian skeleton into the resemblances which it presents to skeletons of other vertebrates. Tehthyosaurian characters are sobdivided into Mammalian, Avian, Crocodilian, Chelonian, Lacertilian, Cameloman, Rhynchocephalisn, Ophidian, Urodelan, Piscine, Plesiosaurian, Dinosanrian, Dicynodont, and Lahyrinthodont. By thus classifying the characte's it is anticipated that the affinities of the Ichthyosaurian type r ay be rendered evident. The resemblances of Pleiosaurian bones with the bones of other animals, by Harry Govier Seeley, F.L. S. This paper is an attempt to make a similar snalysis of the Plesiosaurian skeleton. On the tibia of Megalornis, a large struthious bird from the London clay, by Harry Govier Seeley, F.L.S. The anthor considered that the skull named by Prof. Owen Dasornis might, if it belonged to a bird, be referred to Megalornis; but he detailed considerations which led him to suggest that Desernis may possibly be a fish. On cervical and dorsal vertebrm of Ceococlilus caaz'abrsgiensis Seeley, from the Cambridge Upper Greensand, by Harry Govier Seeley, FL. S On the base of a large Lacertian skull from the Potton sands, by Harry Govier Seeley, F.L.S. This specimen was interpreted bytbe author as the anchylosed basioccipital and basisphenoid of a Dinosaur. Thc author (lid not regard the specimen as giving support to Prof. Huxley's hypothesis of tlse Avian affinities of Dinosaurs. A section through the Devonian strata of West Somerset, by harry Govier Seeley, F.L.S. On the pectoral arch and fore limb of Ophthaimosanras, by Harry Govier Seeley, F. L. S. After some remarks on the structure of the pectoral arch in Icili/lyosasn us the author described parts of a skeleton discovered. by Mr. Leeds in the Oxford clay, oo which be founded the genus Op/zl/iaimosanrns. The glacial phenomena of the Eden Valley and the westero part of the Vorkshire Dale district, by J. G. Goodchild; communicated by H. W. Bristow, F.R.S. This paper is a continuation, in a northward direction, of the investigation of glacial phenomena which formed the matter of a paper lately read before the Society by Mr. Tiddeman, aod published in the Society's journal. Geological observations made on a visit to the Chaderkul, Thian Shan range, by the late Dr. F. Stoliczka. In this paper the author gives ao account of the geology of the district traversed by him in his journey from near Kashgar to Lake Chaderkul on the Russian frontier, a distance of about 112 miles, his route lying among the southern branches of the Thian Shan Range. Three principal ridges were crossed. The first, or Artush ridge, consisted of newer Tertiary deposits of bedded clay and sand, mostly ot a yellonish white colour. These Artush beds were traced by the author for a distance of 22 miles. The southern slopes of this rsnge were covered with gravel from so to 15 ft. thick, which passes into a conglomerate with a thickness ol about 200 ft. The second, or Kokan range, is formed on the southern side of old sedimentary rocks, whilst the northern is occupied by newer Tertiary deposits and basaltic rocke, the former consisting of shales and limestones, in which the author found some fossils, inducing him to refer them to the Trias. These are succeeded by some dark.coloored chaIse, elates, and sandstones, dipping at a high angle to the north. On the denuded edges of these the new Tertiaries rest, consisting of sandstones interstratified with basaltic rocks. These latter increase in thickness till just beyond Kulja an old comma Is reached, with perpendicular walls rising to a height of 1,500 ft. above the river. The cone of the volcano has disappeared by subsidence. The third ridge, Terek.tagh, consists of old sedimentary rocks, chiefly limestones. Note upon a recent discovery of tin-ore in Tasmania, by Charles Gould Note on the occurrence nf a Labyrinthodont in the Voredale rocks of Wensleydale, by L. C. Mmli communicated by Prof. Huxley, F. R. S. Tbe author briefly describes a specimen, discovered by Mr. W. Home, of Leyburn, in the Lower Carbouiferons Rocks there, comprising casts of five bones. He considers that these bones belong to an animal of higher rank than any known fish, and thinks that the Lower Coal-measures of Glasgow, with Lexemme, maybe of earlier date than the Yoredale Rocks Geological Notes on the route traversed by the Varkuud Embassy from Shabidulla to Varkund and Kashgar, by Dr. F. Stohickra. The author described the rocks observed by him along the course of the Karakash river and through the Sauju pass as chiefly metamorpbic, and very highly inclined, until near Yam sedimentary rocks rest unconformably on the echieta. These are probably Palnozosc. Later rocks occur near the camp Kiwaz, some resembling the rocks of the Nahun group, and underlain by deposits containing Carboniferous fossils. At Sanju coarse grey calcareous sandstones and chloritic marls of Cretaceous age occur. True Loss occurs in some of the valleys.-The hematic deposits of Whitehaven and Furness, by J. D. Kendall.-Notes on the Physical Characters and Mineralogy of Newfoundland, by John Milne. Notes on the Sinaitic Peninsula and north-westen* Arabia, by John Milne.-Giants' Kettles at Christiania, by MM. W. C. Brogger and H. H. Reusch; communicated by Prof. Kjerulf, The authors first refer to the popular notices about giar.ts' kettles, and describe in detail a number of these pits, which were examined and emptied near Christiania. They then mention the theory concerning their origin. From their own facts and reading they conclude that many of these remarkable pits were made at the bottom of “Moulins “during a glacial period, when the locality was covered with ice on the scale of existing ice in Greenland. The contents of these pits are traced to their parent rocks, which are higher up towards the great valley of Gulbransdal, in which glacial phenomena abound. They are inclined to conclude that moraine matter was washed off the glacier-ice from time to time, and left in the pits at last.
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Societies and Academies . Nature 10, 236–238 (1874). https://doi.org/10.1038/010236a0