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Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, clix., for July, opens with a concluding communication “On the constitution of the twice substituted benzenes,” by E. Ador and V. Meyer. The authors converted sulphanilic acid into bromobenzine-sulphonic acid, and fused the potassium salt of this acid with potassic hydrate. The dihydroxylbenzine produced was found to be resorcin; Meyer and others have proved that resorcin belongs to the 1: 4 series, and therefore sulphanilic acid must also be regarded as containing the S03H and NH2 in the places 1 and 4 respectively. Sulphanilic acid treated with nitrous acid yields a diazo-derivative C6H4N2SO3, this on boiling with water is converted into phenol-sulphonic acid, which was found to be identical with Kekule's paraphenolsulphonic acid. At the end of the communication, a valuable table of the twice substituted benzines, showing the place of attachment of the second substituted group is given; it however differs in some respects from the arrangement of other chemists. Ernst and Zwenger have prepared ethyl and amyl gallates by passing hydrochloric acid through a boiling solution of gallic acid in the anhydrous alcohols; at present they have not succeeded in preparing the methyl gallate.—A very exhaustive paper follows “On some substances crystallised from microcosmic salt and from borax,” by A Knop, in which the crystallisation of phos-phostannic, phosphozirconic, and phosphoniobic acids from microcosmic salt, and of stannic acid, zirconic acid, noria, and niobic acid from borax are thoroughly discussed.—Lieben and Rossi have prepared “normal valeric acid” by the action of boiling alcoholic potash on butyl cyanide, they find that the valeric acid thus obtained does not agree in properties with either of the acids already known. They have also prepared normal amylic alcohol from the above acid, by heating the calcic valerate with calcic formiate, the valeric aldehyde being converted into amylic alcohol by the action of sodium amalgam. The alcohol obtained boiled at 137°, which is somewhat higher than that of the ordinary alcohol. The normal amylic chloride, bromide, iodide, and acetate have been prepared, all of which possess boiling points higher than those of the compounds obtained from the fermentation alcohol. Normal caproic acid was prepared from amyl cyanide in the same manner as the valeric acid previously described.—A translation of Rossi's paper “On the synthesis of normal propyl alcohol from ethyl alcohol,” and also of T. Smith's paper “On the estimation of the alkalies in silicates” follow.—Tollens continues with the seventh contribution on the allyl group, the subject of which is the conversion of allyl alcohol into propyl alcohol; this is accomplished by treating allyl alcohol with solid potash, the temperature being gradually raised to 155°, hydrogen being; evolved in the reaction; it was found extremely difficult to purify the propyl alcohol; to obtain conclusive evidence it was converted into propionic acid; some six or eight other bodies are formed in this reaction, such as formic acid, propionic acid, and other higher compounds.—Rinne and Tollens have succeeded in preparing allyl cyanide from the bromide by the repeated action of potassic cyanide, and have converted it into crotonic acid by the action of alcoholic potash; the crotonic acid obtained fused at 72°, and possessed all the properties of crotonic acid as made from allyl cyanide prepared from mustard-oil. By the oxidation of allyl alcohol by chromic acid the authors have obtained formic acid, and small quantities of acrylic acid, no acetic acid being produced.—Fittig contributes a paper “On the alleged dibasic nature of gluconicand lactic acids,“being a reply to Hlasiwetz's paper on this subject, Fittig himself considering them monobasic.—The continuation of a paper “On the action of Sulphurous Acid on Platinic Chloride,” by K. Birnbaum, follows, several new and complicated salts of this series have been obtained; the reactions seem to proceed in two siages, first a reduction to platinoiis chloride takes place, and then the substitution of CI by HSO3; thus by the action of hydric amnionic sulphite on amnionic chloroplatinate a body of the composition CI?? Pt. TTCQ? 4 So3 + 4 H30 is obtained.—This number concludes with two short papers by J. Myers. The first is “On the temperature of decomposition of sulphuretted hydrogen,” this is placed between 350° and 400°, probably nearer the lower temperature; the second paper is “On sulphuretted hydrogen containing arsenic.” Sulphuretted hydrogen, as usually prepared from impure sulphuric acid and ferrous sulphide, contains a gaseous arsenic compound, probably arsenetted hydrogen; the two gases do not react on each other at ordinary temperatures, but when they are heated to the boiling point of mercury, a deposit of arsenious sulphide takes place. The arsenetted hydrogen is probably produced by the action of nascent hydrogen on the arsenic compound existing in the sulphuric acid.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/005038a0

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