Microenvironmental cue-regulated exosomes as therapeutic strategies for improving chronic wound healing
Cell-derived exosomes have been rapidly developed and applied in various biomedical fields over the last decade, holding great potentials in tissue repair such as chronic wounds due to their excellent biocompatibility and immune stability. Recent advances in regulating the features and biological functions of cell-derived exosomes by biochemical and biophysical cues in the cell microenvironment are summarized. Then microenvironmental cue-regulated exosomes as therapeutic strategies to improve chronic wound healing are discussed, and hydrogel-based exosome delivery systems used in the treatment of chronic wounds are highlighted. Finally, ongoing challenges and future opportunities are proposed.