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  • Adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film is successfully fabricated by casting process using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). During the curing process, the PDMS lightly cross-linked at the interface with the TPU exhibited a remarkable increase in adhesion properties. The catalytic reaction used for polymerization was regulated by the TPU, which is known to adsorb metal ions. This adhesive PDMS film (APF) demonstrated outstanding adhesion on various substrates under dry and underwater conditions and maintained adhesion even after repeated use. Our findings suggest that the APF could be used an effective waterproof patch by adhering to the surfaces of objects submerged in water.

    • Sangyeun Park
    • Minhyeok Kim
    • Hongyun So
    ArticleOpen Access
  • This study reports the direct observation of atomic density fluctuations in silica glass using angstrom-beam electron diffraction. The local atomic fluctuations are found to originate from quasi-periodic arrays of nanoscale columnar atomic configurations and interstitial tubular voids. The present study also reveals longer-range fluctuations associated with the shoulder of the first sharp diffraction peak. These findings may help to understand the properties and performance of materials.

    • Akihiko Hirata
    • Shuya Sato
    • Shinji Kohara
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Black phase CsPbI3 easily transforms into the non-perovskite yellow phase, while losing the outstanding optoelectronic properties. In this review, the origin of the phase stability in CsPbI3 and strategies to stabilize the black phases exhibiting the α-phase or the relatively easily stabilized β/γ-phases are extensively discussed. Furthermore, a profound analysis of the CsPbI3 stabilization progress and the evolution of the performance efficiency records of black phase CsPbI3 is provided. Lastly, a prospective on future research on CsPbI3 solar cells pinpoints the current challenges and directs future research approaches toward more efficient and stable devices.

    • Handong Jin
    • Yu-Jia Zeng
    • Elke Debroye
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • The interfaces linking biological tissues and man-made devices is challenging due to mechanical mismatch, biofouling, and water content. Soft materials such as hydrogels have emerged in diverse applications, however, their unresolved problem is the loss of functions in a short period. This report explores natural connective tissue, called periostracum, which is perfectly bridged between biological tissue and inorganic nonliving shell with high durability for long-lasting functions. Its hierarchically designed strategy provides a novel blueprint to design durable soft materials for the interfacing device into tissue.

    • Hyungbin Kim
    • Heejin Lim
    • Dong Soo Hwang
    ArticleOpen Access
  • The structure of a commercially important glass-ceramic ZrO2-doped lithium aluminosilicate system during its initial nucleation stage was investigated by an X-ray multiscale analysis which enables us to observe the structure from the atomic to the nanometer scale by using diffraction, small-angle scattering, absorption, and anomalous scattering techniques. The combinatorial approach revealed that the formation of edge sharing between the ZrOx polyhedra and (Si/Al)O4 tetrahedra, and that the Zr-centric periodic structure in which the local structure of the Zr4+ ions resembled a cubic or tetragonal ZrO2 crystalline phase was potentially the initial crystal nucleus for the Zr-doped lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic.

    • Yohei Onodera
    • Yasuyuki Takimoto
    • Shinji Kohara
    ArticleOpen Access
  • We demonstrate the magnetic-field induced reversal of antiferromagnetic spins and the electric field modulation of the switching field. The modulation efficiency is significantly high, greater than 4 T nm/V, and this giant modulation efficiency is attributed to the magnetoelectric effect of the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3. The magnetoelectric (ME) based mechanism provides a scheme for the energy-efficient, nonvolatile, deterministic 180° switching of the magnetic state in the pure antiferromagnetic (AFM) component. This study represents a great advancement in the AFM-based ME random access memory with ultralow writing power, an inherently fast switching speed and superior robustness to the magnetic state.

    • Kakeru Ujimoto
    • Hiroki Sameshima
    • Yu Shiratsuchi
    ArticleOpen Access
  • This research is emphasized particularly on cathodes (such as carbon, metal oxides, MXenes, and redox-active polymers), anodes (such as Zn-based composite materials and Zn-free materials), electrolytes (organic/ionic liquid electrolytes, WiSs, redox electrolytes, polymer or solid electrolytes) as well as the design of a novel device for ZHSCs.

    • Weijia Fan
    • Faxing Wang
    • Yuping Wu
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Bayesian optimization improved the thermoelectric properties of InGaAsSb thin films; this domain warrants comprehensive investigation due to the need to simultaneously control multiple parameters, such as, the composition, dopant concentration, and film-deposition temperatures. After six optimization cycles, the dimensionless figure of merit exhibited an approximately threefold improvement compared to its values obtained in the random initial experimental trials. These findings not only promote the development of thermoelectric devices based on III–V semiconductors but also highlight the effectiveness of using Bayesian optimization for multicomponent materials.

    • Takamitsu Ishiyama
    • Koki Nozawa
    • Kaoru Toko
    ArticleOpen Access
  • The energy loss mechanism due to magnetostriction was clarified by analytical formulation considering the viscosity of magnetic materials. Effects of magnetostriction have been focused on contributions to magnetic anisotropy. However, our formulation shows that the magnetic anisotropy due to magnetostriction cannot explain excess losses in nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials, and the viscosity causes resistance forces acting on domain wall motions. This viscous resistance dissipates the magnetic energy and generates the energy loss, which has the same frequency dependence as anomalous eddy current loss. The results of this research provide new design criteria for ultra-efficient soft magnetic materials.

    • Hiroshi Tsukahara
    • Haodong Huang
    • Kanta Ono
    ArticleOpen Access
  • A novel magnetic anisotropic hydrogel (MAH) with magnetic and topographic anisotropy was designed by combining static magnetic field-induced magnetic nanomaterials and a hydrogel. The duel anisotropic hydrogel promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through upregulating SNHG5 and downstream SIRT6, which modulated the level of NOTCH1/2 by antagonizing DNMT1 protein stability.

    • Shijia Tang
    • Yue Yan
    • Ning Gu
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Despite years of exploration, numerous challenges remain unresolved in the field of hydrogels and hydrogel membranes for bone repair. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles and current development status of hydrogel materials for bone repair, including their mechanisms, formation principles, and medical benefits in bone regeneration. Additionally, we summarize recent effective strategies to develop advanced hydrogels and technical approaches for bone repair while also discussing future directions.

    • Wang Ding
    • Yuxiang Ge
    • Xiaofan Yin
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • The figure depicts a new type of transparent electrode recording array made of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanotubes grown on graphene (top middle). The nanotubes are formed by sharp nanowalls to penetrate the cell (top left) while transparent graphene layers allow imaging the neurons using with conventional microscopy (top right). As a result, simultaneous recording of electrical signals was obtained from multiple neurons at single-cell resolution. Moreover, the signals had distinguishable waveforms that implicated extracellular- and intracellular-like electrophysiological voltage changes (bottom).

    • Jamin Lee
    • Keundong Lee
    • Gyu-Chul Yi
    ArticleOpen Access
  • A biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerator made from both natural and synthetic biodegradable materials that is utilized to collect mechanical energy in vivo and transduce it into electricity. Reed film and polylactic acid were chosen among different biodegradable materials as the triboelectric layers due to having the best output performance. The nanogenerator was connected to an interdigital electrode to generate an electric field, which stimulated the accelerated release of doxorubicin from red blood cells in targeted drug delivery systems. The release of doxorubicin normalized, facilitating the precise killing of cancer cells, demonstrating the broad potential in the field of cancer treatments.

    • Gang Jian
    • Shangtao Zhu
    • Ching-Ping Wong
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Cryomicroneedles (cryoMNs) permit the precise delivery of therapeutic cells into the skin, but are limited by the cold-chain transportation and storage. This article introduces an innovative solution to use a prefabricated porous microneedle scaffold that can be shipped at room temperature and allow on-site cell loading and usage in the clinic (i.e., the second generation cryoMNs or S-cryoMNs). The study investigates the loading and intradermal delivery of three cell types in clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo models, including mesenchymal stem cells for wound healing, melanocytes for vitiligo treatment, and antigen-pulsed dendritic cells for cancer vaccination.

    • Mengjia Zheng
    • Tianli Hu
    • Chenjie Xu
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Topological transition of a bubble to a skyrmion by the controlled magnetic monopoles injection in Fe/Gd magnetic multilayers. The magnetic monopoles injected from the top and bottom surfaces are topologically characterized by Q = −1 and Q = +1, respectively.

    • Hee-Sung Han
    • Sergio A. Montoya
    • Mi-Young Im
    ArticleOpen Access
  • In this paper, we report the dimensional control of the interface coupling-induced ferromagnetic phase in perovskite-CaRuO3/infinite-layered-SrCuO2 superlattices. The Hall and magnetoresistance measurements indicate the appearance of an interfacial ferromagnetic state in the originally paramagnetic CaRuO3 layers when the CaRuO3 layer is in proximity to the chain-type SrCuO2 layers; this superlattice has the highest Curie temperature of ~75 K and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Along with the thickness-driven structural transition from chain-type to planar-type of the SrCuO2 layers, the interfacial ferromagnetic order gradually deteriorates and finally disappears.

    • Li Zhe
    • Shi Wenxiao
    • Jirong Sun
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Wearable devices provide an alternative way to clinically diagnose respiratory diseases in a non-invasive and real-time manner. In this review, we summarize the recent developments in the field of wearable respiratory sensors, including the methods to synthesize various sensing materials, the ways to improve respiratory sensing performances, and the feature comparison among different sensing materials. We also summarize the concentrations, sources and associated diseases of various biomarkers in exhaled gas. Finally, we discuss current trends in the field to provide predictions for the future trajectory of wearable respiratory sensors.

    • Zhifu Yin
    • Yang Yang
    • Xue Yang
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • The lymphatic system is essential for maintaining homeostasis of our body. Understanding the impact of environmental factors on the lymphatic system and regulating its condition are therefore crucial. We developed a microfluidic device culturing functional skin barrier and lymphatic vessel monolayer. A deep-learning algorithm was employed to validate the pro-lymphangiogenic character of a natural substance Lymphanax™, an extract of Panax Ginseng root. We foresee this platform functioning as a valuable research tool for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, replacing the need for animal models.

    • Minseop Kim
    • Sieun Choi
    • Phil June Park
    ArticleOpen Access