Browse Articles

  • Article | | open

    Three-dimensional (3D) priming, which encapsulates human adipose derived stem cells into hydrogel systems, greatly reduces the amount of time required to induce an efficient retroviral transduction compared with the conventional two-dimensional (2D) method. This facilitating effect is closely related to the acceleration of cell cycle regulation (G1 arrest and G1/S transition) by 3D priming.

    • Yein Lee
    • , Yoshie Arai
    • , Jinsung Ahn
    • , Deogil Kim
    • , Seunghee Oh
    • , Donyoung Kang
    • , Hyungsuk Lee
    • , James J. Moon
    • , Bogyu Choi
    •  & Soo-Hong Lee
  • Article | | open

    We produced a human recombinant Hsp70-1A fused with the cell-penetrating peptide Tat (Tat-Hsp70-1A), that was neuroprotective in vitro against the dopaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We developed and characterized a Tat-Hsp70-1A delivery system by exploiting an injectable, biocompatible, biodegradable semi-interpenetrating polymer network composed of collagen (COLL) and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMW HA), structured with gelatin particles. Tat-Hsp70-1A diffused from the selected COLL-LMW HA composites in an active form and protected dopaminergic cells and neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) models. Furthermore, Tat-Hsp70-loaded composites conveyed neuroprotection both at behavioral and dopaminergic neuronal level against striatal injection of 6-OHDA.

    • Marta Tunesi
    • , Ilaria Raimondi
    • , Teresa Russo
    • , Laura Colombo
    • , Edoardo Micotti
    • , Edoardo Brandi
    • , Pamela Cappelletti
    • , Alberto Cigada
    • , Alessandro Negro
    • , Luigi Ambrosio
    • , Gianluigi Forloni
    • , Loredano Pollegioni
    • , Antonio Gloria
    • , Carmen Giordano
    •  & Diego Albani
  • Review Article | | open

    Surface-grafting polymer brush (SPB) technique can be used to change the inherent physical/chemical properties of materials surface. Practical applications are paid more attention since SPB technique enables to decorate materials with diverse functions. This paper reviews the current grafting strategies to generate polymer brush layer on surface of solid materials with diverse geometric structures/sizes, and then systematically summarizes the recent research advances on application of polymer brushes-modified materials. Correspondingly, some key challenges of SPB technique with considering its real application in future are discussed. The aim to draft this paper is to tell the readers how to engineer functional materials by SPB technique.

    • Shuanhong Ma
    • , Xiaoqin Zhang
    • , Bo Yu
    •  & Feng Zhou
  • Article | | open

    Novel chitosan–celluose nanofiber (CS–CNF) composite hydrogels (modulus ~2 kPa) were prepared to have tunable self-healing properties. The injectability and self-healing ability were significantly enhanced for composite hydrogels. The optimized hydrogel promoted the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro as well as functional recovery (50% enhancement over pristine CS hydrogel) in brain-injured zebrafish. Self-healing properties of CS–CNF hydrogels were positively correlated with regenerative capacities and oxygen metabolism of the hydrogels. A mechanism of multiple-bond interactions may explain the biphasic change of self-healing for these hydrogels. The findings provide some design rationale for self-healing hydrogels with potential biomedical applications.

    • Kun-Chih Cheng
    • , Chih-Feng Huang
    • , Yen Wei
    •  & Shan-hui Hsu
  • Perspective | | open

    With two-thirds of the primary energy produced every year rejected as heat, the need for techniques that harvest low-grade waste heat with higher fractions of Carnot efficiency is clear. This article develops a perspective on pyroelectric energy conversion (PEC), that leverages the intrinsic coupling between electrical polarization and temperature in pyroelectric materials where a change in temperature begets a flow of electrical charge. This article will shed light on what thermo-electrical properties are crucial for PEC and the routes to enhance them. Subsequent discussion will cover thermodynamic cycles and device design rules to extract maximum work and power.

    • Shishir Pandya
    • , Gabriel Velarde
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Joshua D. Wilbur
    • , Andrew Smith
    • , Brendan Hanrahan
    • , Chris Dames
    •  & Lane W. Martin
  • Article | | open

    A transparent stretchable (TS) capacitive sensor, which can detect pressure (force) and touch inputs distinguishably was fabricated by forming with a TS dielectric layer sandwiched between the upper piezoresistive electrode of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)–ionic liquid composite enabling to distinguish touch and pressure stimuli and the lower TS electrode of metal/indium tin oxide/metal multilayer on a transparent elastomeric substrate with stress-relieving three-dimensional microstructured pattern providing multi-directional stretchability and high pressure sensitivity. The TS sensor array demonstrated a good control of the interaction with a small vehicle as a multi-functional input device for future wearable electronics.

    • Byeong-Ung Hwang
    • , Arsalan Zabeeb
    • , Tran Quang Trung
    • , Long Wen
    • , Jae Deuk Lee
    • , Young-In Choi
    • , Han-Byeol Lee
    • , Ju Hyun Kim
    • , Jeon Geon Han
    •  & Nae-Eung Lee
  • Article | | open

    Without the introduction of new functional groups, it is often difficult to alter the properties of a substance, such as by changing it from a non-self-healing to a rapidly self-healing material. In this work, we report that the properties of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylamide (HEMA/AAm) hydrogels can be easily altered from non-self-healing to rapidly self-healing materials by simply tuning the reaction temperature. The stretching capabilities of the hydrogels can be greatly enhanced by up to 30-fold. The hydrogels also exhibit good adhesive performance to various substrates. These results provide valuable insight regarding the design of self-healing hydrogels.

    • Rui Chen
    • , Xiubin Xu
    • , Danfeng Yu
    • , Minhuan Liu
    • , Chuanghong Xiao
    • , Ian Wyman
    • , Zhengping Wang
    • , Hui Yang
    •  & Xu Wu
  • Perspective | | open

    Progress in soft machines and electronics depends on new classes of soft multifunctional materials that can self-repair and heal when damaged so that they can survive the same real-world conditions that human skin and other soft biological materials are typically subjected too. Here, we provide a perspective on current trends and future opportunities in self-healing soft systems that enhance the durability, mechanical robustness, and longevity of soft-matter machines and electronics.

    • Michael D. Bartlett
    • , Michael D. Dickey
    •  & Carmel Majidi
  • Article | | open

    An approach to boost the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of ferroelectric photovoltaics (PVs) is proposed based on the Schottky barrier effect. This approach leverages the thinning of a ferroelectric film to somewhere close to the depletion width, which can simultaneously suppress the recombination and lower the series resistance. Using this approach, we achieve a PCE up to 2.49% (under 365-nm ultraviolet illumination) in the 12-nm Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 ultrathin films. Our study provides insightful guidance on how to design and tailor the ferroelectric films to achieve high PCEs, and also demonstrates the great potential of ferroelectrics for use in ultrathin-film PV devices.

    • Zhengwei Tan
    • , Lanqing Hong
    • , Zhen Fan
    • , Junjiang Tian
    • , Luyong Zhang
    • , Yue Jiang
    • , Zhipeng Hou
    • , Deyang Chen
    • , Minghui Qin
    • , Min Zeng
    • , Jinwei Gao
    • , Xubing Lu
    • , Guofu Zhou
    • , Xingsen Gao
    •  & Jun-Ming Liu
  • Perspective | | open

    Chemical cross-linking represents a unique approach for creating hybrid materials with enriched properties. This method facilitates the formation of interconnected networks within the material, which can modulate its porosity, conductivity and photophysical properties. Porous morphologies are beneficial for electrochemical applications as they enable the smooth diffusion and penetration of ions, effective ion transport at material interfaces, and also offer a synergy of the properties of the constituent materials and cross-linker. This perspective article highlights the recent advances in the area of covalently cross-linked hybrid metal oxides.

    • Roshini Ramachandran
    • , Dahee Jung
    •  & Alexander M. Spokoyny
  • Article | | open

    This article demonstrates an ultrathin e-synapse having high yield, minimal performance variation, and extremely low power consumption based on a Al2O3/graphene quantum dots/Al2O3 sandwich structure that was fabricated by using atomic layer deposition. It showed both high device-to-device and cycle-to-cycle reproducibility with high stability, endurance, and switching uniformity, because of which the essential synaptic behaviors could be observed. This implementation of an e-synapse with an Al2O3/graphene quantum dots/Al2O3 structure should intensify motivation for engineering e-synapses for neuromorphic computing.

    • Zhongwei Xu
    • , Fushan Li
    • , Chaoxing Wu
    • , Fumin Ma
    • , Yueting Zheng
    • , Kaiyu Yang
    • , Wei Chen
    • , Hailong Hu
    • , Tailiang Guo
    •  & Tae Whan Kim
  • Article | | open

    We report a high anomalous Nernst thermopower ( $$S_{yx}^A$$ S y x A ) -value of ~6.0 µV K−1 at room temperature in the ferromagnetic topological Heusler compound Co2MnGa. The measured value is seven-times larger than any anomalous Nernst thermopower value ever reported for a conventional ferromagnet. The high anomalous Nernst effect originates from a large net Berry curvature near the Fermi level associated with nodal lines and Weyl points.

    • Satya N. Guin
    • , Kaustuv Manna
    • , Jonathan Noky
    • , Sarah J. Watzman
    • , Chenguang Fu
    • , Nitesh Kumar
    • , Walter Schnelle
    • , Chandra Shekhar
    • , Yan Sun
    • , Johannes Gooth
    •  & Claudia Felser
  • Article | | open

    A phosphonium-based perovskite, [(CH3)4P]CdCl3, is designed and synthesized, which shows ferroelectric characteristics below 348 K as revealed by the observation of typical stripe-like domains and hysteresis loops. By doping with Sb3+, this material exhibits orange luminescence under UV excitation. This work will open new avenues in designing multifunctional luminescent molecular ferroelectrics.

    • Lin Zhou
    • , Ping-Ping Shi
    • , Xiao-Ming Liu
    • , Jing-Chun Feng
    • , Qiong Ye
    • , Ye-Feng Yao
    • , Da-Wei Fu
    • , Peng-Fei Li
    • , Yu-Meng You
    • , Yi Zhang
    •  & Ren-Gen Xiong
  • Article | | open

    We showed the distinctive unconventional junction effect of MoS2 junctions: a lattice mismatched MoS2. It is unique to observe the difference originated from the atomic interrelation at the interface. The results revealed the dominant scattering source at the conventional naturally stepwise junction, while the misorientationally stacked layer exhibited effectively decoupled behavior and a significantly smaller junction resistance via phonon assist carrier. Therefore, our finding in this paper clearly shows the different mechanisms in carrier transport at both junction interface of MoS2.

    • Hyong Seo Yoon
    • , Juyeong Oh
    • , Jae Young Park
    • , JeongSeob Kang
    • , Junyoung Kwon
    • , Teresa Cusati
    • , Gianluca Fiori
    • , Giuseppe Iannaccone
    • , Alessandro Fortunelli
    • , V. Ongun Ozcelik
    • , Gwan-Hyoung Lee
    • , Tony Low
    •  & Seong Chan Jun
  • Article | | open

    The amphiphilic polyethylene glycol-block-polysulfone-block-polyethylene glycol (PEG-b-PSF-b-PEG) membrane can work as an ideal TFC support to break the permeability–selectivity trade-off of the TFC FO membrane with a high A/B ratio of 19.6 bar−1 (water permeability coefficient A, 1.76 LMH bar−1 and NaCl permeability coefficient B, 0.09 LMH). and also improve its anti-fouling properties through the post-annealing treatment.

    • Xiaochan An
    • , Yunxia Hu
    • , Ning Wang
    • , Tao Wang
    •  & Zhongyun Liu
  • Review Article | | open

    The past decade has witnessed substantial advances in the synthesis of various electrode materials with three-dimensional (3D) ordered macroporous or mesoporous structures (the so-called “inverse opals”) for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Yuping Wu from Nanjing Tech University anchored recent advancements in 3D ordered porous (3DOP) electrode materials and their unusual electrochemical properties bound by their intrinsic and geometric structures. The team introduces various 3DOP electrode materials and their representative applications as electrode materials. Additionally, the team also provides research opportunities as well as the challenges to facilitate further contributions to this emerging research frontier.

    • Zaichun Liu
    • , Xinhai Yuan
    • , Shuaishuai Zhang
    • , Jing Wang
    • , Qinghong Huang
    • , Nengfei Yu
    • , Yusong Zhu
    • , Lijun Fu
    • , Faxing Wang
    • , Yuhui Chen
    •  & Yuping Wu
  • Perspective | | open

    Biological structures such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins are emerging as promising candidates for piezoelectric energy harvesting and sensing. Here we highlight the position of biological materials in the diverse world of piezoelectric structures, and emphasise how a nanoscale insight into these assemblies, particularly in crystalline form, can pave the way for development of a diverse new array of biocompatible sensors for a greener future. By harnessing advances in high performance computing, we can begin to screen the vast library of biomolecules for optimum candidates, with the ultimate goal of re-engineering biological piezoelectricity by first principles design.

    • Sarah Guerin
    • , Syed A. M. Tofail
    •  & Damien Thompson
  • Article | | open

    Well-defined metallic nanoporous sphere with single gyroid (SG) structure can be fabricated by simply using self-assembled diblock copolymer with double gyroid (DG) structure as a template for electroless plating. With the control of nucleation and growth process, SG-structured Ni with uniform pore size and high specific surface area was successfully fabricated. Combining the structural and morphological characters of the fabricated nanoporous Ni sphere, it is appealing to be used in a wide variety of applications, such as high-efficiency and well selectivity hydrogenation catalyst with recyclability.

    • Kai-Chieh Yang
    • , Cheng-Thai Yao
    • , Liang-Yu Huang
    • , Jing-Cherng Tsai
    • , Wei-Song Hung
    • , Han-Yu Hsueh
    •  & Rong-Ming Ho
  • Article | | open

    3D Hybrid composite of ZnO tetrapods and carbon nano onions is developed to a new direction for the visible-light-induced degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol without any hazardous by-products.

    • Seung Jun Park
    • , Gouri Sankar Das
    • , Fabian Schütt
    • , Rainer Adelung
    • , Yogendra Kumar Mishra
    • , Kumud Malika Tripathi
    •  & TaeYoung Kim
  • Article | | open

    A pathway for photopolymerization-based additive manufacturing of self-healable elastomer structures has been explored by Scientists in the United States.

    • Kunhao Yu
    • , An Xin
    • , Haixu Du
    • , Ying Li
    •  & Qiming Wang
  • Article | | open

    Nanostructured biopolymer proposes an efficient environmental clean-up. The deliberate introduction of graphene oxide and in situ generated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into the functionalized biopolymer helps to form a structurally stable magnetic nanostructured material. Amit Kumar Sarkar and Yeoung-Sang Yun and their colleagues from Chonbuk National University, South Korea have shown that the material adsorbs methylene blue with a high adsorption capacity (2,478 milligram per gram) at a fast removal rate. The synergistic development of the material through functionalization and cross-linking leads to the generation of well-dispersed high-density active adsorption sites with enormous microchannels in the nanocomposite, which are responsible for the efficient pollutant uptake. The researchers pointed out that graphene oxide plays a vital role in the structural stability of the material and the generation of well-dispersed active binding sites is more important than the porosity or surface area of the material.

    • Amit Kumar Sarkar
    • , John Kwame Bediako
    • , Jong-Won Choi
    •  & Yeoung-Sang Yun
  • Article | | open

    In this research, we utilize unique cone-shaped structure of crystalline n-ZnO semiconductor, fabricated by controlled wet etching conditions to realize near to bio-synapse size (~20–40 nm) electronic synapse device. The comprehensive “synaptic plasticity behavior” was realized in the device via homogeneous oxygen vacancies accumulation and relaxation states such as paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), short-term plasticity (STP) to long-term plasticity (LTP) memory transition, and important “learning-experience” synaptic functioning.

    • Andrey Sergeevich Sokolov
    • , Yu-Rim Jeon
    • , Sohyeon Kim
    • , Boncheol Ku
    •  & Changhwan Choi
  • Article | | open

    In this work, an injectable, self-healing hydrogel with antibacterial and angiogenic abilities was prepared based on the coordination of multi-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) with antibacterial silver ions (Ag+). The injectable and self-healing properties derive from the dynamic nature of the Ag-S coordination bonds. After incorporation of an angiogenic drug desferrioxamine (DFO), we could obtain a multifunctional hydrogel with manageable, resistant to external stress, antibacterial and angiogenic properties. Such unique multifunctional hydrogel thus shows potential to accelerate the healing of some exposed wounds (e.g., diabetic skin wound) under disturbed physiological functions, high risk of bacterial infections, and external mechanical irritation.

    • Hao Chen
    • , Ruoyu Cheng
    • , Xin Zhao
    • , Yuhui Zhang
    • , Allison Tam
    • , Yufei Yan
    • , Haokai Shen
    • , Yu Shrike Zhang
    • , Jin Qi
    • , Yonghai Feng
    • , Lei Liu
    • , Guoqing Pan
    • , Wenguo Cui
    •  & Lianfu Deng
  • Perspective | | open

    In-plane domain wall memory. Cross-bar architecture of three-terminal mesa-like cells with written bipolar domain information (thick arrows) using L and R electrodes, which can be read out at a sufficiently high voltage applied between M and R accompanied by erasure/creation of conductive domain walls (red dotted line).

    • An Quan Jiang
    •  & Yan Zhang
  • Article | | open

    We propose an innovative skin-over-liquid system made of a periodic array of highly compliant microbumps actuated through an electrode-free electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure. We demonstrate that these structures are highly repeatable and are capable to swell and deflate easily under a simple thermal stimulation driven by pyroelectric effect, thus providing a challenging platform that can be actively controlled at microscale. We show the proof of principle by swelling these microbumps for stimulating mechanically live cells in vitro, thus opening the route to more reliable and easy to accomplish assays in the field of mechanobiology.

    • O. Gennari
    • , R. Rega
    • , M. Mugnano
    • , E. Oleandro
    • , L. Mecozzi
    • , V. Pagliarulo
    • , E. Mazzon
    • , A. Bramanti
    • , A. Vettoliere
    • , C. Granata
    • , P. Ferraro
    •  & S. Grilli
  • Article | | open

    A two-terminal self-rectfying TaOy/Nanoporous TaOx memristor synapse was fabricated based on anodization process. The device exhibits high non-linearity, low synapse-coupling (S.C), acceptable endurance, sweeping and retention stability, as well as essential synaptic functions such as long-term plasticity and spiking-timing-dependent-plasticity. Furthermore, crossbar array consisting of the only designed device without any selector shows relatively well-defined switching parameters with acceptable cell uniformity and capability of suppressing undesired pathways. The effect of S.C on recognition accuracy of MNIST patterns was also simulated for the first time. Based on experimental average S.C value, the device exhibited the high accuracy comparable to S.C = 0

    • Sanghyeon Choi
    • , Seonghoon Jang
    • , Jung-Hwan Moon
    • , Jong Chan Kim
    • , Hu Young Jeong
    • , Peonghwa Jang
    • , Kyung-Jin Lee
    •  & Gunuk Wang
  • Article | | open

    In textile electronics, micro to millimeter-scaled misalignment is commonly occurred during the high-throughput and bulk-scaled textile manufacturing process, thus the exact performance control of the fiber-based active devices is very difficult in low-cost wearable electronics. In this research, we developed novel single-strand organic electrochemical transistors and proposed dimension-independent characterization method (i.e., the current variation ratio in variation of logarithmic concentration of electrolyte) for ion concentration sensing. Furthermore, we demonstrated the pseudo two-terminal transistor operation by incorporating electrochemical gate electrode onto the surface of the source electrode, leading to single-strand fiber device platform.

    • Youngseok Kim
    • , Taekyung Lim
    • , Chi-Hyeong Kim
    • , Chang Su Yeo
    • , Keumyoung Seo
    • , Seong-Min Kim
    • , Jiwoong Kim
    • , Sang Yoon Park
    • , Sanghyun Ju
    •  & Myung-Han Yoon
  • Article | | open

    Flexible perovskite solar cell with an efficiency of 15.8 % via tailoring of vacuum-deposited PbI2 growth morphology has been achieved. We demonstrated superior mechanical bending stability using amorphous TCO (retaining 80 % of the initial efficiency after 1000 bending cycles at 4 mm bending radius). Flexible NIR-transparent perovskite solar cell with an efficiency of 14.0 % and average transmittance of ~74 % between 800 and 1000 nm has been developed. Eventually, we proved a flexible perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cell with an efficiency of 19.6 % measured in four-terminal configuration.

    • Stefano Pisoni
    • , Romain Carron
    • , Thierry Moser
    • , Thomas Feurer
    • , Fan Fu
    • , Shiro Nishiwaki
    • , Ayodhya N. Tiwari
    •  & Stephan Buecheler
  • Article | | open

    We report on the anisotropic friction domains of MoS2 not only grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under various sulfur pressure conditions, but also by mechanical exfoliation process. The 180° periodicity of each domain and the 60° shift between adjacent domains indicate the presence of linearly aligned structures along the armchair direction of MoS2. The universality of anisotropic frictional behaviors of 2D materials, including graphene, hBN, and WS2 with stacking honeycomb lattices supports our assumption based on linearly aligned ripples along the crystallographic axes, which result from an inhomogeneous strain field.

    • Ji Hye Lee
    • , Sangik Lee
    • , Ji Hoon Jeon
    • , Da Yea Oh
    • , Minjung Shin
    • , Mi Jung Lee
    • , Sachin Shinde
    • , Jong-Hyun Ahn
    • , Chang Jae Roh
    • , Jong Seok Lee
    •  & Bae Ho Park
  • Article | | open

    Gas filled nanobubbles are fabricated by surface-engineered progress with forming folate-mediated, gadolinium (Gd3+)-labelled and IR-780/5-FU loaded hollow structures. The nanobubbles progress capacity of NIR-/MR-/US-imaging in vitro. Importantly, the nanobubbles present charge-switchable behaviors when pH values changed from 7.4 to 5.0 and demonstrate pH-/light-sensitive drug release behaviors. Coupled with FA-targeting, the nanobubbles can be employed for efficient tri-modal imaging in vivo with selective tumor accumulation, long tumor retention time, and present enhanced anti-tumor activity with combined chemo-/photothermal therapy. Therefore, nanobubbles can act as excellent nanocarriers for active tumor targeting theranostics.

    • Tianliang Li
    • , Jia Zhou
    • , Chunlei Zhang
    • , Xiao Zhi
    • , Jiaqi Niu
    • , Hualin Fu
    • , Jie Song
    •  & Daxiang Cui
  • Article | | open

    A graphene based quasi-solid state rechargeable Li-O2 battery is developed by utilizing 3D nanoporous graphene cathode, TTF modified quasi-solid state GPE and porous graphene/Li anode. This integrated prototype battery simultaneously addresses the major challenges of Li-O2 batteries in energy efficiency, lifetime and safety and present an important progress in practical implementation of full performance Li-O2 battery.

    • Gang Huang
    • , Jiuhui Han
    • , Chuchu Yang
    • , Ziqian Wang
    • , Takeshi Fujita
    • , Akihiko Hirata
    •  & Mingwei Chen
  • Article | | open

    This work first reports the finding of a re-entrant relaxor–ferroelectric composite (RRFC) which solves a long-standing challenge: a combination of low hysteresis and large electrostrain over a broad temperature range (i.e., 168 K temperature window for hysteresis <20% and strain >0.1%) in sufficiently disordered (Ba0.925Bi0.05)(Ti1−x/100Snx/100)O3 ceramics. This exceptional combination is achieved by the RRFC designing strategy; i.e., introducing sufficient disorder to enable a re-entrant transition and thereby creating a relaxor–ferroelectric coexisting microstructure over a broad temperature range. Our finding does not only solve the incompatibility of electromechanical properties but also may open a way to develop thermally stable high-performance materials.

    • Minxia Fang
    • , Yuanchao Ji
    • , Zhen Zhang
    • , Yaodong Yang
    • , Chang Liu
    • , Dong Wang
    • , Lixue Zhang
    • , Jinghui Gao
    •  & Xiaobing Ren
  • Article | | open

    A new electron-accepting π-conjugated compound containing fluorinated naphthobisthiadiazole (FNTz) is designed and synthesized for application as an acceptor in organic solar cells (OSCs). Physical measurements show that the introduction of fluorine atoms in the naphthobisthiadiazole (NTz) unit has considerable influence on the absorption behavior and frontier orbital energy levels of molecules. In OSCs, the FNTz-based acceptor in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a donor exhibits a significant improvement in power conversion efficiency compared to the corresponding nonfluorinated NTz-based acceptor. This study demonstrates the potential of FNTz as an electron-accepting unit in organic semiconductors.

    • Shreyam Chatterjee
    • , Yutaka Ie
    • , Takuji Seo
    • , Taichi Moriyama
    • , Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer
    • , Paul W. M. Blom
    •  & Yoshio Aso
  • Article | | open

    A bioinspired nanosystem of cancer cell membrane-camouflaged SPIO@DOX-ICG nanoparticles was fabricated to realize precise cancer treatment by simultaneous chemotherapy, hyperthermia-therapy, and radiotherapy. The nanosystem achieved synergistic anticancer effects by antagonizing tumor hypoxia and reprograming the polarization of tumor associated macrophages to anti-tumor M1 phenotype, without causing toxic side effects on major organs.

    • Yanyu Huang
    • , Chaoming Mei
    • , Yiqiao Tian
    • , Tianqi Nie
    • , Zhuang Liu
    •  & Tianfeng Chen
  • Article | | open

    We experimentally observe that D, the strength of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI), is correlated with the difference of work function W of Co and nonmagnetic material X in Pt/Co/X trilayer system. The spin–orbit-scattering-mediated spin–chiral effect may plays leading role in this system, and this phenomena may be affected by work function difference which may be linked to electrostatic potential that may affect the scattering potential at the interface. Such correlation with the intrinsic material parameter provides a guideline for material selection to engineer the DMI and helps control properties for applications of chiral objects such as magnetic skyrmion.

    • Yong-Keun Park
    • , Dae-Yun Kim
    • , Joo-Sung Kim
    • , Yune-Seok Nam
    • , Min-Ho Park
    • , Hyeok-Cheol Choi
    • , Byoung-Chul Min
    •  & Sug-Bong Choe
  • Article | | open

    The key in engineering functional excitable tissues is to develop advanced conductive biomaterials that could guide cells to form electrically interconnected networks. This study aims to develop reduced graphene oxide functionalized silk nanofibrous biomaterials with controllable surface deposition. The composites exhibit uniform nanolayer of reduced graphene oxide, and well controlled conductivity and nanofibrous morphology. The scaffolds promote formation and functionalities of engineered cardiac tissues, and electrical stimulation further enhances these promotion effects. This research provides guidance for using reduced graphene oxide to fabricate conductive nanofibrous biomaterials for the regeneration of functional excitable tissues.

    • Guoxu Zhao
    • , Huaibin Qing
    • , Guoyou Huang
    • , Guy M. Genin
    • , Tian Jian Lu
    • , Zhengtang Luo
    • , Feng Xu
    •  & Xiaohui Zhang
  • Article | | open

    In this study, we present a new type of spatially modified ECM composed of type 1 collagen whose properties differ from those of a collagen matrix. Using this ECM, we developed a stable human mammary epithelium with a lumen structure that exhibited a barrier function in a microfluidic platform, produced laminin, and formed a basement membrane. This reconstructed mammary duct can serve as a model for investigating breast cancer and may be adapted to other types of epithelium for in vitro studies.

    • Youngkyu Cho
    • , Woo Kyung Moon
    • , Hoe Suk Kim
    • , Kyuhwan Na
    • , Ji Hun Yang
    • , Yang Hoon Huh
    • , Jeong Ah Kim
    • , Seok Chung
    •  & Su Hyun Lee
  • Article | | open

    An intrinsically stretchable and highly conductive graphene electrode based on vertically oriented graphene/Au bilayer flakes are successfully fabricated by a direct-laser-patterning at a very high-repetition rate and fast scanning speed of laser with a femtosecond pulse, allowing micro-supercapacitors to be integrated with the complete soft electronics systems that can be standalone and be customized by user’s circuit designs.

    • Sangbaek Park
    • , Hyub Lee
    • , Young-Jin Kim
    •  & Pooi See Lee
  • Article | | open

    We visualize an electric-field-induced collective propagation of oxygen vacancies spontaneously contained in Ca-substituted BiFeO3 films, using the fact that the oxygen-rich and poor regions have different color contrasts and thus they are optically distinguishable forming a sharp boundary. We quantitatively determine the drift velocity to be of the order of 100 μm s−1 with an activation barrier of 0.79 eV indicating a significantly large ionic mobility 2 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 V−1 at a remarkably low temperature of 390 °C. Furthermore, U-shaped propagation and turbulence under backward electric field provide insights into fluidic defects in crystalline solids.

    • Ji Soo Lim
    • , Jin Hong Lee
    • , Heung-Sik Park
    • , Ran Gao
    • , Tae Yeong Koo
    • , Lane W. Martin
    • , Ramamoorthy Ramesh
    •  & Chan-Ho Yang
  • Article | | open

    The modulation of interfacial coupling of (La0.67Sr0.33MnO3)n/(SrTiO3)n superlattices with n unit cells of SrTiO3 and n unit cells La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, offers an effective opportunity to control charge transfer and orbital hybridization. The easy axis of magnetic anisotropy rotates ~45° towards the out-of-plane direction from n = 10 to n = 2 at reduced temperature TRe = T/TS = 0.87 (TS is onset of magnetization). Orbital hybridization accompanying the charge transfer results in preferred occupancy of $$3d_{3z_{2} - r_{2}}$$ 3 d 3 z 2 - r 2 orbital at the interface, and induces stronger electronic hopping integral and interfacial magnetic anisotropy along perpendicular direction, useful to tailor properties in device applications.

    • Bangmin Zhang
    • , Lijun Wu
    • , Jincheng Zheng
    • , Ping Yang
    • , Xiaojiang Yu
    • , Jun Ding
    • , Steve M. Heald
    • , Richard A Rosenberg
    • , Thirumalai Venky Venkatesan
    • , Jingsheng Chen
    • , Cheng-Jun Sun
    • , Yimei Zhu
    •  & Gan Moog Chow
  • Article | | open

    We observed huge magnetoresistance (~ 1015% in 90 kOe external magnetic field and 1013% in 30 kOe external magnetic field) at 10 K by engineering electronic phase separation in charge-ordered half-doped manganites. The observed huge value of magnetoresistance is explained by double-exchange model Hamiltonian calculations. Moreover, our electronic phase-controlled material, namely Sm0.5Ca0.25Sr0.25MnO3, shows an ultrasharp metamagnetic transition below 10 K, which is martensitic in nature. The many order of magnitudes higher magnetoresistance in Sm0.5Ca0.25Sr0.25MnO3 than any other magnetoresistive materials reported so far will motivate further experimental work.

    • Sanjib Banik
    • , Kalipada Das
    • , Tapas Paramanik
    • , Niranjan Prasad Lalla
    • , Biswarup Satpati
    • , Kalpataru Pradhan
    •  & Indranil Das
  • Article | | open

    A thermoresponsive smart colorimetric patch was fabricated by embedding thermoresponsive plasmonic microgels in a stretchable hydrogel film. The stretchable and wearable colorimetric patches exhibited vivid color change, fast response time, outstanding thermal resolution, and high durability. Potential applications in wearable smart sensors and soft robotics were demonstrated through a spatial temperature scanner and a colorimetric thermometer for thermoresponsive actuators.

    • Ayoung Choe
    • , Jeonghee Yeom
    • , Ravi Shanker
    • , Minsoo P. Kim
    • , Saewon Kang
    •  & Hyunhyub Ko
  • Review Article | | open

    Fluorescent diarylethenes are the most attractive molecules for several applications, such as optical memories, optical switches, or probes for the imaging technology. A wide variety of fluorescent diarylethenes combining with organic fluorophores, emissive polymers, or fluorescent inorganic materials have been developed from the molecular level to the nanoscale during the past decade. In this review, the different molecular and nanomaterial designs providing suitable fluorescence photoswitching property are introduced. Furthermore, the recent development of new applications using fluorescent diarylethene-based molecules and nanomaterials are also summarized.

    • Tuyoshi Fukaminato
    • , Sanae Ishida
    •  & Rémi Métivier
  • Article | | open

    A novel synthesis protocol for fabrication of micron-sized multi-compartmentalized mesoporous silica spheres is developed, which is exemplified by successful synthesis of a family of unprecedented multi-compartmentalized mesoporous silica microspheres (MSMs) including hollow MSMs, hollow nanosphere-containing MSMs, nanosphere-containing MSMs, yolk-shell-structured MSMs, and “solid” MSMs. These microspheres exhibit not only significantly enhanced performances in CO2 capture and catalysis but also the superiority in technical applications.

    • Lijuan Wei
    • , Shuai Yan
    • , Huanhuan Wang
    •  & Hengquan Yang
  • Article | | open

    An approach towards kirigami metamaterials with reconfigurable toroidal circular dichroism is presented. Inspired by the kirigami concept, kirigami-based chiral metamaterials are proposed to switch the electromagnetic performance between non-chiral and chiral states. When transforming the 2D metasurface to 3D kirigami patterns, the resonant modes exhibit gradually enhanced chiroptical response, from single-band, dual-band to broad-band functionalities.

    • Liqiao Jing
    • , Zuojia Wang
    • , Bin Zheng
    • , Huaping Wang
    • , Yihao Yang
    • , Lian Shen
    • , Wenyan Yin
    • , Erping Li
    •  & Hongsheng Chen
  • Article | | open

    Pressure-induced phase transitions in GeSe are investigated from theory and experiment. Two new phases are predicted to exist in-between the well-known α-GeSe and the recently discovered β-GeSe under pressures. It is predicted that α-GeSe transforms into a rhombohedral structure with a space group of R3m and exhibits robust ferroelectricity at a low hydrostatic pressure. Laser-heated DAC experiments have been conducted to provide further evidence on the existence of the R3m phase. By increasing the hydrostatic pressure to approximately 6 GPa, the R3m phase is predicted to transform into a rock-salt crystal structure ( $$Fm\bar 3m$$ F m 3 ¯ m ) and become a topological crystalline insulator.

    • Hulei Yu
    • , Dexiang Gao
    • , Xiancheng Wang
    • , Xueyan Du
    • , Xiaohuan Lin
    • , Wenhan Guo
    • , Ruqiang Zou
    • , Changqing Jin
    • , Kuo Li
    •  & Yue Chen