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Water resources are sources of – usually fresh – water that are useful, or potentially useful, to society; for instance for agricultural, industrial or recreational use. Examples include groundwater, rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
Climate change affects the availability of water for cooling thermoelectric power plants, causing curtailments in generation. This study models how future changes in water availability due to climate and water usage impacts power generation across the EU, and assesses different adaptation strategies.
Sustainable development goals for water use and food production are in conflict, but this could be reduced by proper water management. Here, violations of global environmental flow requirements for rivers are quantified and related to reconciliation potentials in irrigated and rainfed agriculture.
Wastewater can make up a large fraction of stream flow. An analysis of over 14,000 US streams shows that under severe low-flow conditions, wastewater containing endocrine disruptors is poorly diluted, and many streams exceed safety thresholds.
Climate change will affect future water availability and temperature and hence thermoelectric power generation, which uses water for cooling. This study explores future usable capacity for existing thermoelectric power under different scenarios, including US state-level environmental regulations.
Groundwater that predates the Holocene is commonly assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. A global analysis of fossil groundwater suggests that modern contaminants are present in deep wells that tap fossil aquifers.
Applying high-potential alternating current to a carbon-nanotube–polymer composite film provides a self-heating membrane that enhances desalination performance of high-salinity brines by membrane distillation.