Viral pathogenesis

Viral pathogenesis is the process by which viruses infect and cause disease in a host.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    How Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains unclear. Here, using a genetic mouse model and a virulent JEV strain, the authors show that perivascular mast cells (MC) mediate JEV neuroinvasion and identify the MC-protease chymase as a potential therapeutic target.

    • Justin T. Hsieh
    • , Abhay P. S. Rathore
    • , Gayathri Soundarajan
    •  & Ashley L. St. John
  • Reviews |

    The re-emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus Zika seems to be sexually transmitted and can persist in the male genital tract, presenting as genitourinary symptoms such as haematospermia, prostatitis, painful ejaculation, penile discharge, and oligospermia. In this Review, the authors explain the mechanisms that underlie persistent Zika infections in men and describe why these are crucial to developing guidelines, effective vaccines, and therapies.

    • Fábio A. Kurscheidt
    • , Cristiane S. S. Mesquita
    • , Gabrielle M. Z. F. Damke
    • , Edilson Damke
    • , Analine R. B. de A. Carvalho
    • , Tamy T. Suehiro
    • , Jorge J. V. Teixeira
    • , Vânia R. S. da Silva
    • , Raquel P. Souza
    •  & Marcia E. L. Consolaro
  • Research | | open

    The human genome includes a large amount of repetitive sequence, such as human satellite II (HSATII), but their function remains largely unknown. Here, Nogalski et al. show that herpesvirus infection induces HSATII RNA expression, which in turn affects virus replication and cell motility.

    • Maciej T. Nogalski
    • , Alexander Solovyov
    • , Anupriya S. Kulkarni
    • , Niyati Desai
    • , Adam Oberstein
    • , Arnold J. Levine
    • , David T. Ting
    • , Thomas Shenk
    •  & Benjamin D. Greenbaum
  • Research |

    The non-structural protein NSs of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus interacts with ABIN2 and promotes formation and signalling of the TPL2–ABIN2–p105 kinase complex to induce expression of the immune-suppressive cytokine IL-10 and enhance viral pathogenesis.

    • Younho Choi
    • , Su-Jin Park
    • , Yinyan Sun
    • , Ji-Seung Yoo
    • , Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam
    • , Suan-Sin Foo
    • , Woo-Jin Shin
    • , Sally B. Chen
    • , Philip N. Tsichlis
    • , Won-Ja Lee
    • , Jong-Soo Lee
    • , Wenhui Li
    • , Benjamin Brennan
    • , Young-Ki Choi
    •  & Jae U. Jung
  • Reviews |

    Coronaviruses have a broad host range and distribution, and some highly pathogenic lineages have spilled over to humans and animals. Here, Cui, Li and Shi explore the viral factors that enabled the emergence of diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    • Jie Cui
    • , Fang Li
    •  & Zheng-Li Shi

News and Comment

  • Research Highlights |

    This report shows that a non-structural protein of a persistent plant virus can induce the apoptotic response to promote viral transmission.

    • Andrea Du Toit
  • News and Views |

    APOBEC3 restriction, known to inhibit retroviruses by interfering with genome replication and hypermutating viral DNA, targets the γ-herpesvirus Epstein–Barr virus and is antagonized by the viral BORF2 protein.

    • Michael H. Malim
    •  & Darja Pollpeter
  • News and Views |

    Primate immunodeficiency virus accessory proteins Vpx/Vpr associate with and induce proteasomal degradation of the HUSH complex, thereby counteracting HUSH-mediated epigenetic transcriptional repression of proviral and cellular genes. These findings open new therapeutic avenues against HIV.

    • Carine Van Lint
    Nature Microbiology 3, 1336-1338
  • News and Views |

    A key step of the antiviral immune response is detection of the viral intruder. Infection with highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus is now shown to produce short aberrant viral RNAs that potently trigger activation of innate immunity.

    • William Riedl
    •  & Michaela U. Gack
    Nature Microbiology 3, 1196-1197