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Genome-wide association studies of kidney function show enrichment of associated genetic variants in regulatory regions. Here, the authors perform epigenome-wide association studies of kidney function and disease, identifying 19 CpG sites significantly associated with these.
Sacral neuromodulation is used to treat refractory overactive bladder (OAB). Recent research has shown that changes in brain activity during sacral neuromodulation relate to its mechanism of action and that these changes vary with device settings. Much remains to be discovered about how sacral neuromodulation influences brain activity, but studies are now beginning to elucidate these effects.