tRNAs

Definition

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are a type of non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA) that carry specific amino acids and recognize unique messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. The pairing of a tRNA to its compatible mRNA sequence within the ribosome is the basis for the translation of RNA into protein.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Initiation factor eIF2, common to eukaryotes and archaea, is a central actor in translation initiation. Here the authors describe two cryo-EM structures of archaeal 30S initiation complexes that provide a novel view of the central role that e/aIF2 plays in start codon selection.

    • Pierre-Damien Coureux
    • , Christine Lazennec-Schurdevin
    • , Auriane Monestier
    • , Eric Larquet
    • , Lionel Cladière
    • , Bruno P. Klaholz
    • , Emmanuelle Schmitt
    •  & Yves Mechulam
  • Research | | open

    Mycobacteria can adapt to the stress of human infection by entering a dormant state. Here the authors show that hypoxia-induced dormancy in M. bovis BCG involves the reprogramming of tRNA wobble modifications and copy numbers, coupled with biased use of synonymous codons in survival genes.

    • Yok Hian Chionh
    • , Megan McBee
    • , I. Ramesh Babu
    • , Fabian Hia
    • , Wenwei Lin
    • , Wei Zhao
    • , Jianshu Cao
    • , Agnieszka Dziergowska
    • , Andrzej Malkiewicz
    • , Thomas J. Begley
    • , Sylvie Alonso
    •  & Peter C. Dedon
  • Research |

    The eukaryotic Elongator complex participates in modification of uridines in tRNAs. Structural and functional work on a bacterial Elp3, the catalytic subunit of Elongator, provides insight into the function and mechanism of this important enzyme.

    • Sebastian Glatt
    • , Rene Zabel
    • , Olga Kolaj-Robin
    • , Osita F Onuma
    • , Florence Baudin
    • , Andrea Graziadei
    • , Valerio Taverniti
    • , Ting-Yu Lin
    • , Frauke Baymann
    • , Bertrand Séraphin
    • , Karin D Breunig
    •  & Christoph W Müller
  • Reviews |

    This Review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate translation in cancer cells. The authors highlight the technological advances that have fuelled progress in this field and discuss how cancer cells tailor translation to adapt to oncogenic stress.

    • Morgan L. Truitt
    •  & Davide Ruggero
    Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 288–304
  • Research | | open

    Ribosomes tend to stall during the translation of consecutive proline residues, which can be rescued by the co-translational factor EF-P. Here the authors identify a structural element of tRNAPro responsible for specific recognition by EF-P and stimulation of Pro-Pro peptide bond formation.

    • Takayuki Katoh
    • , Ingo Wohlgemuth
    • , Masanobu Nagano
    • , Marina V. Rodnina
    •  & Hiroaki Suga
  • Research | | open

    The anticodon loops of almost all tRNAs contain modifications known to be important for their function. Here the authors use crystallography to provide new mechanistic insights into how the modification at the wobble position of the E. coli tRNALysUUU assists in discrimination between cognate and near-cognate codons.

    • Alexey Rozov
    • , Natalia Demeshkina
    • , Iskander Khusainov
    • , Eric Westhof
    • , Marat Yusupov
    •  & Gulnara Yusupova

News and Comment