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In echinoderm mitochondria, the codon AAA encodes asparagine instead of lysine. A newly identified nucleoside modification, hydroxy-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ht6A), is found adjacent to the anticodon in mt-tRNALys and prevents mt-tRNALys from misreading AAA as lysine.
The ribosome-associated complex (RAC) is formed by the JD protein Zuo1 and the unconventional Hsp70 Ssz1. This Review presents recent developments that have increased our understanding of RAC's mechanisms and cellular functions.
Rps26 promotes translation by recognition of the Kozak sequence in well-translated mRNAs, whereas exposure to cellular stress leads to formation of Rps26-deficient ribosomes, which preferentially translate stress-response mRNAs with Kozak sequence deviations.
Several protein quality control mechanisms are in place to trigger the rapid degradation of aberrant polypeptides and mRNAs. Here the authors describe a mechanism of ribosome-mediated quality control that involves the ubiquitination of ribosomal proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2/RQT1.
Allan Jacobson reminds us of how a study by Dever et al. published in 1992 connected several data on translational regulation, bringing attention to its crucial role in the regulation of gene expression.
A recent study shows that a self-peptide generated in pancreatic islet beta cells through the translation of a noncanonical alternative reading frame in human insulin mRNA is recognized by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in type 1 diabetes.