Transforming growth factor beta

Definition

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that is secreted by various cell types, including macrophages, and functions in cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis by binding to its receptor, the TGFβ type II receptor. Multiple signalling pathways lie downstream of the receptor, including the SMAD transcription factors and cell-cycle proteins.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    The mechanisms underlying tissue fibrosis are unclear. The authors show that mesenchymal cells expressing PDGFRβ mediate fibrosis in skeletal muscle and heart via a mechanism involving αv integrin, and that inhibitors of αv integrins attenuate fibrotic responses in mice.

    • I. R. Murray
    • , Z. N. Gonzalez
    • , J. Baily
    • , R. Dobie
    • , R. J. Wallace
    • , A. C. Mackinnon
    • , J. R. Smith
    • , S. N. Greenhalgh
    • , A. I. Thompson
    • , K. P. Conroy
    • , D. W. Griggs
    • , P. G. Ruminski
    • , G. A. Gray
    • , M. Singh
    • , M. A. Campbell
    • , T. J. Kendall
    • , J. Dai
    • , Y. Li
    • , J. P. Iredale
    • , H. Simpson
    • , J. Huard
    • , B. Péault
    •  & N. C. Henderson
  • Research | | open

    Although protein tyrosine kinases are being explored as antifibrotic agents for the treatment of systemic sclerosis, little is known about the function of counteractive protein tyrosine phosphatases in this context. Here, the authors show that PTP4A1 is highly expressed by fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis and promotes TGFβ activity via SRC–ERK–SMAD3 signaling.

    • Cristiano Sacchetti
    • , Yunpeng Bai
    • , Stephanie M. Stanford
    • , Paola Di Benedetto
    • , Paola Cipriani
    • , Eugenio Santelli
    • , Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez
    • , Vladimir Chernitskiy
    • , William B. Kiosses
    • , Arnold Ceponis
    • , Klaus H. Kaestner
    • , Francesco Boin
    • , Sergio A. Jimenez
    • , Roberto Giacomelli
    • , Zhong-Yin Zhang
    •  & Nunzio Bottini
  • Research | | open

    Developmental cues for the different dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the intestine are yet to be defined. Here the authors show that TGFβR1 signalling is needed for development of CD103+CD11b+ intestinal DCs from CD103CD11b+ cells and that they contribute to the generation of Th17 and regulatory T cells

    • C. C. Bain
    • , J. Montgomery
    • , C. L. Scott
    • , J. M. Kel
    • , M. J. H. Girard-Madoux
    • , L. Martens
    • , T. F. P. Zangerle-Murray
    • , J. Ober-Blöbaum
    • , D. Lindenbergh-Kortleve
    • , J. N. Samsom
    • , S. Henri
    • , T. Lawrence
    • , Y. Saeys
    • , B. Malissen
    • , M. Dalod
    • , B. E. Clausen
    •  & A. McI. Mowat
  • Research | | open

    Inhibition of GDF8 increases muscle mass in mice, but is less effective in monkeys and humans. Here the authors show that activin A also inhibits muscle hypertrophy and that concomitant inhibition of activin A and GDF8 synergistically increases muscle mass in mice and non-human primates.

    • Esther Latres
    • , Jason Mastaitis
    • , Wen Fury
    • , Lawrence Miloscio
    • , Jesus Trejos
    • , Jeffrey Pangilinan
    • , Haruka Okamoto
    • , Katie Cavino
    • , Erqian Na
    • , Angelos Papatheodorou
    • , Tobias Willer
    • , Yu Bai
    • , Jee Hae Kim
    • , Ashique Rafique
    • , Stephen Jaspers
    • , Trevor Stitt
    • , Andrew J. Murphy
    • , George D. Yancopoulos
    •  & Jesper Gromada

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