Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that is secreted by various cell types, including macrophages, and functions in cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis by binding to its receptor, the TGFβ type II receptor. Multiple signalling pathways lie downstream of the receptor, including the SMAD transcription factors and cell-cycle proteins.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Many beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by factors secreted from the exercising muscle, so-called myokines. Here, the authors identify what might be the first exercised-induced adipokine, TGF-β2, which is secreted from subcutaneous fat in response to exercise-induced increases in serum lactate levels and has beneficial metabolic effects in mice.

    • Hirokazu Takahashi
    • , Christiano R. R. Alves
    • , Kristin I. Stanford
    • , Roeland J. W. Middelbeek
    • , Pasquale Nigro
    • , Rebecca E. Ryan
    • , Ruidan Xue
    • , Masaji Sakaguchi
    • , Matthew D. Lynes
    • , Kawai So
    • , Joram D. Mul
    • , Min-Young Lee
    • , Estelle Balan
    • , Hui Pan
    • , Jonathan M. Dreyfuss
    • , Michael F. Hirshman
    • , Mohamad Azhar
    • , Jarna C. Hannukainen
    • , Pirjo Nuutila
    • , Kari K. Kalliokoski
    • , Søren Nielsen
    • , Bente K. Pedersen
    • , C. Ronald Kahn
    • , Yu-Hua Tseng
    •  & Laurie J. Goodyear
    Nature Metabolism 1, 291-303
  • Reviews |

    Macrophages are versatile immune cells that protect the host against infection but can also promote chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In this Review, the authors discuss the diverse roles of macrophages in acute and chronic renal pathology as well as potential therapeutic targets.

    • Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang
    • , David J. Nikolic-Paterson
    •  & Hui-Yao Lan
  • Research | | open

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been previously implicated in fibrosis and a pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor is currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of IPF. Here the authors show that the mTORC1/4E-BP1 axis is critical for TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis in in vitro and ex vivo models and that canonical PI3K/Akt signalling is dispensable.

    • Hannah V. Woodcock
    • , Jessica D. Eley
    • , Delphine Guillotin
    • , Manuela Platé
    • , Carmel B. Nanthakumar
    • , Matteo Martufi
    • , Simon Peace
    • , Gerard Joberty
    • , Daniel Poeckel
    • , Robert B. Good
    • , Adam R. Taylor
    • , Nico Zinn
    • , Matthew Redding
    • , Ellen J. Forty
    • , Robert E. Hynds
    • , Charles Swanton
    • , Morten Karsdal
    • , Toby M. Maher
    • , Giovanna Bergamini
    • , Richard P. Marshall
    • , Andy D. Blanchard
    • , Paul F. Mercer
    •  & Rachel C. Chambers
  • Research | | open

    Studying the uterine lymphocyte pool is difficult due to its dynamic nature induced by various pregnancy-related factors. Here the authors provide, using transcriptome data from sorted mouse group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC), a molecular atlas of these cells, which implicates tissue-resident natural killer cells as a hub for uterine immune crosstalk.

    • Iva Filipovic
    • , Laura Chiossone
    • , Paola Vacca
    • , Russell S. Hamilton
    • , Tiziano Ingegnere
    • , Jean-Marc Doisne
    • , Delia A. Hawkes
    • , Maria Cristina Mingari
    • , Andrew M. Sharkey
    • , Lorenzo Moretta
    •  & Francesco Colucci

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